as it is called in Chinese Ma-wang-miao, the finest temple in Aduchin, which is to say, The Horse District. It is situated among cultivated fields that the Chinese have acquired from the Mongols, either by direct purchase or trickery. The temple has been abandoned, as it is no longer needed since the ousting of the Mongol population by the Chinese colonists.
Half an hour's drive farther south found us at the rather lovely temple Batuntei-sume, whence we betook ourselves to the Canadian mission-station Ghashate (Ghashiatei) . Here we spent the night, being hospitably entertained by Mrs WYNS and Miss FORDHAM, who had been exposed to very exciting visits by bandits. The superintendent of the station, Mr HINDLE, who had lived here with his wife for twenty years, was at the moment in his native country.
At the station Chaghan-chölo we once more came out on the Urga road 120 kilometers to the north of Kalgan. We continued eastwards on a by-road with very deep ruts. Endless plains extended on all sides; and everywhere one saw the traces of the Chinese ploughs and their permanent settlements of mud huts, sometimes surrounded by a wall and ditch as a defence against robbers, who have their fixed quarters in the neighbouring countryside.
Epi-khalkha (or Efi-ghalkha) was the name of the next temple that we inspected. It gave the impression of a ruin, and formed, like Harring-kerva, a sort of desolate island in the surrounding country, whose altered aspect speaks only of the Chinese infiltration. Planks and beams had been torn away to be used as fuel or building material in these treeless parts. Everything of value had disappeared and the wall-paintings had been destroyed. The lamas themselves had probably taken with them a great part of the objects of value when they abandoned the temple. Six bronze gods standing about a meter in height had been left behind, possibly owing to their weight. We decided to get into touch with the owners of the temple and try to acquire the images, in which we were also successful the following year. We heard mention of another temple in the neighbourhood for which a Chinese merchant had • offered 3000 silver dollars (at the then rate of exchange = i000 American dollars), — obviously intending to turn the woodwork to business account.
Driving south-west and west, we arrived at Dabasun-nor, from which lake large quantities of salt are taken. The altitude is here about 1300 meters above sea-level. From here we drove south-east to the ruins of an old town called Chaghan-balgas (The White Town) on account of the marble slabs that have been found here. The town had been surrounded by a square wall, and the road still goes through two of its gates.