Cl%17. PRELIMINARY ESSAY.
the Persians. Maniach, who was chief of the people of Sogdia, took the opportunity of suggesting to Dizabulus that it would be more for the interest of the Turks to cultivate the friendship of the Romans, and to transfer the sale of silk to them, seeing also that they consumed it more largely than any other people. And Maniach added that he was quite ready to accompany a party of Turkish ambassadors, in order to promote the establishment of friendly relations between the Turks and the Romans. Dizabulus approved of the suggestion, and despatched Maniach with some others as ambassadors carrying complimentary salutations, with a present of silk to no small value, and letters to the Roman Emperor. So Maniach ... at last arrived at Byzantium, and presenting himself at the court, conducted himself before the Emperor in accordance with the obligations of friendship, and when he had made over the letter and presents to the proper officers, prayed that all the toils of his long journey might not have been wasted. The emperor when he had by aid of the interpreters read the letter, which was written in Scythian, gave a gracious reception to the embassy, and then put questions to them about the government and country of the Turks. They told him that there were four chiefs, but that the supreme authority over the whole nation rested with Dizabulus. They also related how he had subdued the Ephthalites and even made them pay tribute. Then said the Emperor, 'Has then the whole power of the Ephthalites been overthrown ?' ' Altogether,' answered the envoys. Again the Emperor : ' Did the Ephthalites live in cities or villages or how V The Envoys : 'They are a people who live in cities, 0 king.' ' Is it not of course then,' said the Emperor, ' that you are become masters of all their cities ?' ... The ambassadors having counted up to the Emperor all the nations who were subject to the Turks, begged him to give his sanction to the establishment of amity and alliance between the two nations, and said that on their part they would always be ready to attack the enemies of the Roman power wherever they might show themselves in their part of the world. And as he said this Maniach and his companions raised their hands and swore a great oath that they were speaking with their whole hearts, and invoked curses on themselves and on Dizabulus, and on all the nation, if their promises were not true and such as they would carry out. And thus it was that the nation of the Turks became friends with the Romans."
"Now Justin, when the Turks, who were anciently called Sacæ, had sent to arrange a treaty with him, resolved to send them an embassy also. So he ordered Zemarchus the Cilician, who was then Præfect of the cities of the East, to prepare for this. And when he had got everything ready that he required for so long a journey, which was towards the end of the fourth year of the reign of Justin, in the month which the