OF MISSIONARY FRIARS. 221
period with which we are dealing appears to be the following. After a
great deal of stuff about reigns of many thousand years, it is said : After
that the Pandyan race became extinct ; the children of concubines and of younger brothers in former ages, fought against one another ; and
dividing the country into factions they caused themselves to be crowned in various parts of the Pandyan kingdom, and ruled each over his own
town, and the surrounding neighbourhood. No one being permitted to rule in Madura, each party strove in battle against the other ; and their several children continued for some generations to rule in those various places." (Taylor, Orient. Hist. MSS., i, 25.) The MVlahomedans are stated then to have come in during this state of anarchy, in the twelve hundred and forty-sixth year of Salivahana (A.D.1324). But it is obvious that they had great power in the Peninsula thirty years before that date, and the invasion by the armies of Ala-uddin took place some years before.
M. Pauthier, in his new Marco Polo, has adduced curious references to Maabar, and to the five brother princes, from the Chinese Annals, and has also anticipated me in bringing forward the passage from Rashid at p. 219 in illustration of the traveller. It is curious that its remarkable concurrence with the latter's statements should have escaped Sir Henry Elliott from whom we both derive the extract. Whilst referring to this part of Marco's narrative it seems worth while to point out that when M. Pauthier concurs with Marsden and others in identifying the kingdom of MUTFILI, which the traveller describes, with Masulipatam he does the same injustice to his author's accuracy which he so severely blames in others. Masulipatam, he says, is Machli-patam and Machli-bander, d'où est venu sans doute le nom, de Mustfili." But Marco's name is 1Vlutfili, and requires no torture. The name and place still exist. Mutapali or Mootapilly, which the Arab sailors would call Mutafilly, as they call Pattan Fattan, is a port in the Gantur district south of the Krishna, which still has, or had at the beginning of this century, a considerable amount of coasting trade. The kingdom of Mutafili was no doubt, as Marsden perceived, that of Warangal or Tiling. "It is subject to a queen of great wisdom, whose husband died forty years ago, and her love to him was such that she has never married another. During this whole term she has ruled the nation with great equity, and been beloved beyond measure by her people" (Polo, iii, 21). The just and good queen of whom Marco here speaks can also be identified as Rudrama Devi, the daughter of the ruler of Dewagiri, and widow of Sri Kumara Kakatiya Pratapa Ganapati Rudra Deva King of Warangal, who made extensive conquests on the coast. This lady ruled after her husband's death for twenty-eight, or thirty-eight years, and then in 1292 or 1295 transferred the crown to her daughter's son Pratapa-Vira-RudraDeva, the Luddur Deo of Firishta. (See Taylor, Oriental Hist. MSS., ii, 81; Ditto, Catalogue Raisonné, etc., iii, 483 ; C. P. Brown, Carnatic Chronology, pp. 54-55. The latter does not mention the queen.)
P.S. After this went to press a brief examination of the passage quoted from Rashid (at p. 219) as it is in the MS. in the India Office Library, shows its readings as Nilc war, Sindar Bandi, and Kdul, for Silawar, Sin-dar Ledi, and Bawul. That is, the letters will bear the readings stated, and not those of Sir H. Elliott's copy, but there are no diacritical points.