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0285 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2 / Page 285 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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384. YARCAN   881

to Chê-chü for metric reasons (cf. BEFEO, v, 263). The Nan shih (79, 7 a) speaks of   A r~

Chou-ku-k'o (*T'sjau-kuo-k`â) as being one of the small kingdoms which lay in the neighbourhood of the Hua (Hephthalites) and which sent envoys together with those from the Hua in 520. Here the transcription would suppose *Cukuka; the identity of the two names is certain.

The same Chinese scholars who saw Yârkänd in *Cakuka located at Yül-ariq and Kök-yàr, far to the south of Yârkänd, a kingdom known as f â Tzü-ho under the Han, and in various transcriptions during the Wei and T'ang dynasties. The name Tzü-ho is still used by Fa-hsien

c. 400, but c. 520 Sung Yün gives   Zpj   Chu-chü-po (*T'âiu-kiju-puâ; cf. BEFEO, III, 397).
Between Fa-hsien and Sung Yün, and as a result of the efforts made in 435 and 436 by the Wei

to re-open the intercourse with Central Asia, the kingdom oft   Hsi-chü-pan (*SÂét-kj wo-
puân) had sent an embassy which was followed by several others (Pei shih, 97, 3 b; Wei shu, 102, 3 a; T'ai-p'ing yü-lan, 796, 14 b). But the same dynastic histories which have a notice on Hsi-

chü-pan, have also one on   tX, Chu-chü, certainly shortened from the form Chu-chü-po which
became known in the first quarter of the 6th cent. (Pei shih, 97, 11 a; Wei shu, 109, 9 a; T'ai-p'ing yü-lan [quoting from the original Wei shu], 797, 18 a). The lists of the Candragarbha, which give *Cakuka when speaking of the protector deities of the various kingdoms, mention A fB. fj Chê-chü-po (*T'sa-kju-puâ) in the repartition of the kingdoms under the various naksatra (BEFEO, V, 276). The iij Ç Chu-pan named after Khotan in Nan shih, 79, 7 a, is certainly altered from

Chu[ ]-chü-pan (*T'§ju-kju-puân). In T'ang times, the transcriptions are   (D   Chu-chu-po

(*T'siju-kju-puâ) and 4; fB.   Chu-chü-p'an (*T'§ju-kiu-b`uân; cf. Hsin T'ang shu, 221 A, 9 b;
T'ung tien, 193, 6 b; BEFEO, III, 397). In a text derived from 7nanagupta's account of Cakuka,

we find A A   Chê-chü-p'an (*T'§ja-k1u-b'uân; Taishô, Tripit., 51, 8372). With the exception
of Hsi-chü-pan, which would suppose *Sikupan, the other transcriptions represent *Cukupa, *Cukupan, *Cukuban, *Cakupa, *Cakuban.

There can be no doubt that this name, as was first shown by THOMAS, is the same as that which occurs in Tibetan texts in the forms Cu-go-ban, Cu-gu-pan, etc. ; it seems to be also represented in Kharo§thi documents as a (tribal ?) name of individuals, in the forms Cugapa and Gugopa (cf. THOMAS, in STEIN, Ancient Khotan, 583, 584; Zeitschr. f. Buddhismus., 1924, extr., p. 2; Tibetan Texts and Documents, I, 25, 38, 123, 133, 150; RAPSON, Kharoslhi inscriptions, III, 3451).

Although all the Chinese transcriptions from the 5th cent. onwards have a surd at the beginning of the second syllable, the sonant -g- of Cu-go-ban and still more of the earlier Cugapa provide the link whereby the name may be connected more securely with the Chinese transcription Tzû-ho of Han times. Tzû-ho was pronounced *Tsi-yâp c. A. D. 600, and represents a still earlier *Tsig`âp. Now, we must remember that the Chinese language of the Han period does not seem to have had either true palatals or palatal affricates (5, or t.'), so that such sounds, when occurring in foreign words or names, were then rendered with the dental affricate (ts [c in linguistic transcription]). Tzü-ho, thus based on *Cigap, is a very satisfactory transcription of the name later sanskritized as Cugapa and Cugopa.

While Chinese scholars have dissociated *Cakuka and *Cukupa, recent Western scholars, following in the wake of CHAVANNES, agree that both names refer to one and the same country,