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0045 Innermost Asia : vol.2
Innermost Asia : vol.2 / Page 45 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000187
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and the Wu-chi-hsiao-wei was besieged by the Huns and Chü-shih. A Chinese relieving force dispatched from Su-chou (Chiu-ch`üan) won, indeed, a great victory over Chü-shih in a battle fought A. D. 76 near Chiao-ho or Yâr-khoto. But the Wu-chi-hsiao-wei was recalled, and the Turfân region was once again abandoned to Hun domination.4

It was not until the Huns in the east had suffered a great defeat in A.D. 89 and the famous general Pan Chao had re-established Chinese supremacy in the west of the Tarim basin by a long series of brilliant operations, that Turfân and the neighbouring territories passed once again under Chinese control. In A. D. 90 1-wu (Ha.mi) was recovered and both the Anterior and Posterior kings of Chü-shih sent tribute to the imperial court.5 In A. D. 91, Pan Chao having been appointed Governor-General, a Wu-chi-hsiao-wei was re-established to reside with five hundred soldiers in the camp of Kao-ch`ang (Kara-khôja), while a ` superintendent of the Wu tribe ' f â{l f* was placed in charge of the Posterior tribe of Chü-shih.s The subsequent events recorded by the notice of Chü-shih in the Hou Han shu clearly indicate that it was the ` Posterior tribe of Chü-shih ' which it cost the Chinese administration of the Western countries most trouble to control. This fact is fully accounted for, in the first place by the closer vicinity of the Huns established in the north-east of Dzungaria, and secondly by the physical character of the northern slopes of the Tien-shan, which permitted Posterior Chü-shih to be occupied by a population at least partly nomadic. We have already seen evidence of the influence exercised by this geographical difference between Anterior and Posterior Chü-shih on the history of the two closely linked territories. We are probably justified in looking to it also for an explanation of certain ethnic facts that may be gathered from the archaeological and literary remains of Turfân.?

In A. D. 96 we read that Cho-ti   , king of the Posterior tribe, on being threatened with
deposition by the Wu-chi-hsiao-wei, took the offensive against the king of the Anterior tribe, by whom he had been betrayed. A large Chinese expedition had to be organized in the following year in order to pursue him into the territory of the northern Huns, where he was ultimately defeated and killed.$ The general disorders and revolt that broke out after Pan-Ch`ao's retirement in A. D. 102 from the charge of the Western countries, and by A. D. 107 led to their complete abandonment, brought Chü-shih once again into dependence on the Huns. The Chinese occupation of I-wu (Hami) in A. D. 119 was followed, it is true, by the submission of the king of Anterior Chü-shih (Turfân). But the Chinese occupying force was annihilated within the same year by the Huns, assisted by the Posterior tribe of Chü-shih, and thereupon the chief of Anterior Chü-shih was also put to flight. During the years immediately following we read that the people of Chü-shih, overawed by the Huns, constantly participated in the raids by which the latter harassed the territories of Ho-hsi, from Tun-huang to beyond Kan-chou.9

It was the imminent danger that the Huns from Turfân would overrun both Tun-huang and Shan-shan, and thus establish contact with the Chiang nomads in the Nan-shan and K`un-lun to the south, that appears to have forced the Emperor An-ti into action. In A. D. 123 Pan Yung,

the son of Pan Chao and almost as celebrated as his father, was appointed Chang-shih    of
the Western countries, with orders to establish himself with a Chinese garrison at Liu-chung, [J 4i, the present Lukchun, the chief eastern oasis of the Turfân basin. As I-wu (Hami) was not

Chinese control re-established,

A. D. 89.

Chü-shih abandoned to Huns,

A. D. I07.

Pan Yung regains Chü-shih,

A. D. 123.

4 Cf. ibid., pp. 157 sq., 211 sq.

5 See ibid., pp. 158, 212.

6 See ibid., p. 158. The Hou Han shu in this passage mentions Soo li as the distance between the residence of the `Superintendent of the Wu tribe ' and Kao-ch`ang. This in conjunction with another passage (T`oung-pao, 1907,

p. 169), already referred to above, p. 565, proves that this


residence was at Chin-man, the locality occupied by the Pei-t`ing of Tang times and marked by the ruined site north of Jimasa.

7 See above, pp. 558, 568 sq. ; below, pp. 582, 585.

8 Cf. Chavannes, T`oung-pao, 1907, p. 212.

9 See ibid., pp. 161, 165, 212.