Sec. Hi] TO ANCIENT GRAVEYARDS BY THE KURUK-DARYA 735
a coarse woollen fabric and a piece of twisted woollen and grass cord, L.S. i. oi ; also a roughly smoothed stone about 14 inches long and i inch in diameter, running to an obtuse point. The
method of burial here followed is not easy to determine with certainty, and none of the other graves helped to throw light upon it. The body may have been burned on or within the planked enclosure ; then the whole covered in with earth and the stockade of posts fixed around to symbolize the dwelling of the dead.
Three small graves found in a row about i8 feet to the east of L.S. r revealed a method of burial identical with that observed at L. F.,6 so that approximately the same period and origin may be attributed to them. The bodies were found laid in hollowed-out tree trunks, over which had been placed cross-pieces of thick wood. The graves L.S. 2 and L.S. 4 had enclosures of
boards which touched the top of the rough coffin at its edges. The boards, about 4 feet long, stood in their present condition only a few inches above the surface. In L.S. 2 lay the much-decayed
body of an adult, apparently male, the skull of which, L.S. 2. 07, was removed for examination. With it were found the wooden ladle L.S. 2. 02 (Pl. XXVI) ; the well-made basket-work strainer 2. 03 (Pl. XXVI), inserted in a wooden bowl, 2. 04 (Pl. XXVI) ; a bone pin, 2. 05 (Pl. XXIV), closely resembling in shape shroud-pins like L.F. ii. 04 (Pl. XXIV) ; also the fragment of a goat's-
hair fabric. _
The contents of L.S. 3, the grave of a woman, corresponded still more closely to the burials of L. F. Here the wooden pieces forming the top of the coffin were covered with large shallow trays
of basket-work, L.S. 3. 02-4 (Pl. XXVIII). The goatskin fixed underneath these had helped to
keep off damp. Hence decay had not advanced here as far as in the other graves. Over the head was fastened a close-fitting felt cap, 3. o6, together with a face-cloth, 3. 01 (Pl. XXV), made of
a strong woollen fabric having a twisted fringe. By the left proper of the head was placed a melon-shaped grass basket, 3. o5, closely resembling those found at L.F. and L.C. A coarse woollen shroud enveloped the body. In L.S. 4 the corpse, with the exception of the skull and bones, had completely decayed.
L.S. 5, a grave marked by a quintuple row of posts at the south-eastern corner of the northern group, had a boarded enclosure, 5i feet long, with the narrower foot end towards the west, as it
was also in L.S. r. No coffin was found here nor any evidence of burning. Only some of the
larger bones of the body buried within the enclosure had survived. In the soil close to the surface were found the much-perished remains of what evidently had been meant for a coarse wooden
representation of a human figure, about i 2 feet long, the head being marked by a ball, the feet by a knob-like end. This evidently corresponded to the wooden female image L.Q. ii. oi, which Afrdz-gul had found in a grave of the Lou-lan cemetery L.Q.,7 and the figure L.T. oi, to be presently mentioned, which Lai Singh had recovered from a grave of L.T.
This conclusion was fully confirmed by a find made in L.S. 6, a small grave on the western side of this group and the last one here excavated. A boarded enclosure stood over a coffin made of a hollowed-out-tree trunk, which rested at a depth of only three feet below the surface. Across the top thick pieces of wood had been laid and these again covered with a sheepskin. Notwithstanding this protection the body was found to be much decayed and the shroud completely rotten. However, on the left proper of the head there was found the curious stone image of a woman, L.S. 6. or (Pl. XXVI), coarsely modelled without limbs but well carved. This grave, like those from which the much larger wooden figures, L.Q. ii. oi (Pl. XV) and L.T. oi, were recovered, manifestly belonged to the indigenous Lou-lan population. Hence the long narrow face of the image, with the strong prominent nose, has a distinct interest.
6 Cf. above, i. pp. 264 sq. 7 See below, ii. p. 743.