Sec. i] THE RUINS OF YING PAN 761
Complete, but broken and now mended. H. 2f" ; diam. of bottom i", of mouth 2 H". Pl. Cx.
Ying. III. 3. 07. Lacquered wooden vase ; with plain mouth, and straight sides rising from echinus-shaped body, "
I to It" from foot, which is only slightly raised. Interior also expands towards bottom following line of surface. Remains of red lacquer outside on straight part with traces of pattern in black lines and spots. Black on echinus. Rim uneven and much worn. I-I. 3-i" ; gr. diam. 3i" ; diam. of base 24", of mouth 3f". Pl. Cx.
Ying. III.4. 0I. Fr. of woollen material, strongly woven with slight rib ; from trousers. Buff, discoloured and torn. 7i" X IIi".
Ying. III. 4. O. Fr. of fine silk canvas, from coat edge, crimson strip with yellow of same material attached at one edge. Material resembles modern bunting but is probably silk. Remains of yellow silk piping on other edges, to which is sewn dark buff silk. At one end of yellow canvas is sewn a piece of soft crimson silk similar to Ying. III. 3. oI. 3' io" x 7"
Ying. III. 4. o$. Fr. of woollen mat, woven with goat's-hair warp. Weft is passed round bundle of warp threads at edge, and then woven in the manner of ` paring' in basket-work, giving the appearance of string laid in parallel rows joined together by the widely spaced warp.
SECTION II.—THE ANCIENT COURSE OF THE KONCHE-DARYA AND
THE ' TOWN OF CHU-PIN'
My reason for visiting Ying-p`an, even more than the interest which the ruins of the site might offer, was the wish to examine on the spot a wider question of both geographical and antiquarian importance connected with the Kuruk-daryâ. I have had occasion, both in Serindia and in the present work, when discussing the remains of the ancient settlement marked by the ruins of the Lou-lan area and the old Chinese high road once passing through it, to point out more than once the essential fact that it was solely the water once brought to this area by the Kuruk-daryâ which had rendered it capable of occupation or even of being merely traversed by traffic. Our surveys of 1906 and 1914, supplemented by Afrâz-gul's observations on the tour from which he had just rejoined me, had furnished clear evidence of the extensive ancient delta formed by the Kurukdaryâ both to the south and east of the main Lou-lan site, during the prolonged period when it carried water. They had also shown that all these successive branches of the river had found their termination in marshes, long ago dried up like the salt-encrusted bed of the prehistoric Lop Sea which these marshes had fringed along its western edge.
At the same time a variety of considerations had led me to conclude that the Kuruk-daryâ had derived its supply of water principally from the Konche-daryâ, a considerable river, of which, as the surveys of previous explorers showed, the now dry bed of the Kuruk-daryâ seemed to form a direct continuation eastwards. To Colonel Kozlov belongs the merit of having on the one hand recognized that the marsh-filled bed crossed by the Lop—Turfân route at Ying-p`an formed part of the head of the Kuruk-daryâ,, and on the other of having shown by his mapping of 1893 that the actual bed of the Konche-daryâ passes within a comparatively short distance of Ying-p`an. Dr. Hedin's explorations of 1896 had fully confirmed these observations and furnished much valuable information about the Konche-daryâ, farther down. But the ground intervening between it and Ying-p`an had not been seen by any European explorer except along the Ying-p`an—Tikenlik track leading to the south-west, and there the old connexion between the Konche-daryâ, and the head of the ` Dry River ' at Ying-p`an could obviously not have lain, as will appear on reference to the map (No. 25. C, D. 3).
An examination of this region appeared to me all the more important on account of the theory that Dr. Hedin had put forward, after his explorations of 19oo—I, as a solution of the so-called ` Lop-nôr problem ' 1 According to this theory, set forth with much ingenuity and learning, the Kuruk-daryâ was supposed to have carried the whole drainage of the Târim, including that of the Konche-daryâ as an affluent, into the ` old Lop-nor ' lake located by him south of the Lou-lan
1 See Hedin, Central Asia, ii. pp. 257 sq.
Interest of Ying-p'an site.
Connexion of ` Dry River ' with the Konchedaryà,
Hydro- graphic notices of Li Tao- yiian,