3 See Ancient Khotan, ii. Pl. LXVIII, LXIX ; Serindia, iv. Pl. XVIII, XIX. For the use of the same motif in modern wood-carvings of Chitral and Khotan, cf. Serindia, i. pp. 35, 48 sq. ; iii. p. 1525 (Index). See also above, i. p. 26.
4 Through the outer door (Fig. 449) a high and well-lit exterior hall (daliz) is entered. It is divided by slender wooden columns into a central passage, i, and two aisles, ii, with their floor raised 2 feet to serve as sitting platforms. Behind a plain inner door a narrow passage leads into the hall (chüt) which serves as the living room for the whole household. Two small recesses open on this narrow passage from the winter quarters : on the right for the calves (gaukheina), and on the left (bajid) for the lambs. The former is roofed at a height of about 6 feet, and the space left between this and the ceiling is used as the sleeping-place for the children (dishatak), who thus get the direct benefit of a kind of hypocaustic heating during the cold of the winter.
The roof of the other recess is at a height of only 4 feet, and thus slightly above the level of the floor of the adjoining platform (arzân) in the proper hall. This, raised 3 feet 5 inches from the ground, contains the main fire-place and is reserved for the work of the women. They also command the small room (khanjin) above the ` Bajid', provided with an additional fire-place, and a corresponding space (chirèzek) screened off on the opposite side of the ` Arzan '. In front of the latter is a narrow platform, nearly 2 feet lower (pish-arzen), with a sunk space in the centre to receive the ashes from the ` Arzan '.
Opposite to the ` Arzan' is the platform of honour (barnèkh), which is reserved for the master of the house and
his guests of distinction. The pillar between it and the ` Dishatak ' hears the significant designation of sir-takia-sitan (Persian sitün). The other three pillars supporting the ceiling likewise have their particular names, as shown in the plan (Pl. 5o), and their special attributions of rank. The platform facing the entrance (lushakh) and that adjoining it in the corner (kunj) are only 2 feet high and allotted to men of lesser standing. In front of the ` Lushakh ' a broad wooden bench (rdrau), slightly hollowed out, is used during the winter months for feeding calves and lambs.
Small recesses in the wall of the ` Arzan ' and elsewhere serve as cupboards for the storage of miscellaneous small objects. Apart from the Chüt' there are no rooms for human occupation even in well-to-do people's houses.
The roof is invariably constructed in the antique fashion, found also in Chitral and Yàsïn houses, of four courses of beams forming successively diminishing squares or oblongs (char-khâna) ; see Serindia, i. p. 14, Fig. 16 ; above, i. P. 44. The opening (rôz) left in the topmost course admits light and allows the smoke to escape.
The walls of the house are very thick, of rough stonework set in mud, and offer good protection against the bitter cold of the winter. But in other respects the traditional domestic architecture of Rôshân, while it compares favourably with that of houses of the old type I saw in Wakhan and Shughnan, is inferior in its standard of comfort to the ruined dwellings dating back to the early centuries of our era which I explored at ancient sites in the Tarim basin.