The upper facial-measurements and index show, therefore, approximately the same results as the total facials.
[lead-circumference. (Table IV.)
The Ishkashmi are distinguished by the lowest absolute (539.71), and are followed at a little distance by the Wakhi (546.78), Yazgulami (547.5o), and Shughnani (549.63). The Kirghiz show the highest figure (560.98), while the Tajik (559.75) and Sistani (557.78) are not far off. The last named take a position rather remote from the Sayad (551.24) and Biloch (552.46), who are at the low end of the scale. The Darwazi (553.86) and Wanji (552.61) fall close together near the centre.
This absolute is not of primary importance, owing to the fact that the standard deviation is invariably extremely high.
Stature. (Table V.)
Statures do not vary very greatly. The extremes are the Özbeg (169.78) and Darwazi (160.68). Next to the Özbeg the tallest peoples are the Sistani (168.51), Shughnani (168.40), Biloch (167.89), and Tajik (167.56). At the other end of the scale, with the Darwazi, are the Wanji (163.74), Karategin (163.96), Ishkashmi (164.32), and Sayad (164.55). In stature, therefore, the Sistani and Biloch stand close together, with the Sayad at a distance, whereas in the matter of head-circumference the Sayad and Biloch stand close together, with the Sistani at a distance.
Span. (Table V.)
The greatest span-measurement is contributed by the Sistani (176.35), who are followed by the Shughnani (174.53), Özbeg (173.67), Biloch (173.51), Tajik (172.44), and Sayad (172.33). The other extreme is represented by the Darwazi (165.88), with the Kirghiz (168.31), Ishkashmi (168.41), and Yazgulami (168.50), standing in that order, immediately above them. The divergence between the Khirghiz and Özbeg is in this case pronounced.
Stature-span Index. (Table V.)
The highest index is shown by the Sayad (104.78), followed by the Sistani (104.70) ; the lowest by the Kirghiz (101.59). The variation, therefore, is not great, and the grouping of the remaining peoples, falling between extremes so short a distance apart, cannot be held to have any great significance.
It is worth while noting that, in the consideration of these absolutes and indices, the name of one people has remained practically unmentioned, viz. the Roshani. Of these dwellers in a secluded valley, Sir Aurel Stein measured no less than fifty-eight individuals, and their averages may therefore be taken as representing with some degree of accuracy their physical characteristics. The reason that they have played no part in the discussion lies, of course, in the fact that in every case their average lies at or near the centre of the scale. The inference is that they probably represent the main element of the bulk of the peoples under consideration in its purest form. It might be suggested that their invariable intermediate position affords evidence that they are a mdlange of many elements. Against this point of view there are two arguments. The first is based on the secluded character of their habitat ; the second, on the fact that were they a mixed people, then, on Mendelian principles, it would be more natural that they should appear among the extremes in respect of one or more characters.
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