Chinese printed book, (Khara-khoto) 446.
Chinese ` revolutionaries ' at Charchan, 158; story of their coup at Charkhlik, 159 ; and their suppression by Chinese officer, i6o ; difficulties caused by, 163, 404.
Chinese routes to the west :
` Route of the centre ', ` Lou-lan route ', 189, 198, 218, 765, 778, 8o6 ; opened 12o—zoo B. C., 230 ; abandoned in fourth century, 230 ; records of its use by Chinese missions, 341 ; by military expeditions, 341 huge losses in crossing the `Salt Lake', 342.
Chinese records of route across Salt Marsh ', 305 ; Li Tao-yiian's description, accuracy of, 305 ; difficulties of camping on hard salt crust, 306 ; prevalence of dust haze, 306 ; fear of demons haunting the waste, 306 ; extent of ` Salt Marsh ' region, 307 ; Li Tao-yuan's estimate of distance taken from the Lou-lan route, 307 ; itinerary of ` route of the centre ' in the Wei lio, 308 ; localities identified, 308 ; the ` Dragon Mounds ' identified, 309.
search for route from Lou-lan to Tun-huang, 282 sqq. ; route indicated by remains, 26o sqq., 285, 286, 288 ; by scattered coins and arrowheads, 290, 29x, 296 ; location of the `Town of the Dragon ', 294 ; evidence of traffic on Mesa, 296.
passage of Lop sea-bed, 297 sqq• sea crossed at its narrowest point, 302 ; reason for detour to NE. of Lou-lan, 302; finds of Han coins, 302; difficulty of determining ancient line of passage, 312 ; Afraz-gul's search, 312 ; fragments of iron found, 312 ; along the eastern coast of the Lop Sea-bed, 313 sqq. ; bead found C. cv, 314 ; camel-tracks, possibly ancient, 315 ; traces of ancient route visible on shôr, 315 ; measurements of track, 315 ; bronze fr. found, 316 ; pottery recalling that at Lou-lan sites, 357 ; crossing of E. bay of sea-bed, 3x7.
caravan route followed through Bèsh-toghrak to Tun-huang Limes, 321, 327 ; lower Su-lo-ho valley the natural corridor into Tarim basin,
problems of transport, 337 sqq. ; start from Limes magazine T. xviii; absence of water and vegetation beyond Camp cvi, 338 ; use of depots, 338 ; transport of water and forage from Lou-lan, 338 ; supplies for men drawn from Tun-huang, 339 ; difficulties compared with those of An-hsiHâmi road, 339 ; use of.camels, 340 ; probable use of •
carts, 34o ; dumps
possibly provided, 341 n. x5 ; dangers from raiders, 341 ; success of Chinese
administration in dealing with problem, 341, 342.
` Route of the north ', from Yümen to Turfân, opened A. D. 1-5, 230, 310, S71 ; from Kuche to Kàshgar, 83o sqq.
` Route of the South', caravan route, transverse route connecting it with Ying-ptan, 765.
Chinese routes : high road from An-hsi to Hâmi, conditions of, 338 ; opened A. D. 73, 338 n. 6 ; difficulties of transport, how overcome, 339.
Chinese script, continued use of, under Tangut rule, 449.
Chinese silk industry, trade with West, 232, 243 sq. ; notices of, in classical times, 243 ; passes through Persia, 244 ; in seventh century, 672 ; influence of Western designs on, 673 ; influence of, on Persian and Hellenistic textile designs, 244.
Ching-chüeh, Chinese name of Niya,
Chingiz Khan, joined by Uighurs in his
expedition to the west, 584. Chini-bagh, British Consulate-General of
Chitral, attack on Chiles, 3.
chiu ch`iang, Chinese name of old (Limes) wall ', 406.
Chiu Tang situ, Former Tang Annals,
Chiu-ch`ilan, name for Su-chou in Han Annals, Soo.
Ch`iu-tzû, Chinese name of Kucha, 803,
840 ; variants of name, 803 n. z. ` Chiusa', barrier wall of valley, (Ranöt)
26 ; (Lohilo-kôt) 32 ; (Darköt) 45. Cho-ti, king of Posterior Chü-shih, at-
tacks Anterior Chü-shih, 573. Chok-tagh, 83 ; list of objects found in
desert E. of, 89 sq.
Chok-tagh to Khotan Mazar-tagh, attempt to trace desert range between, 82 sqq. ; crossing of desert abandoned, 87 ; conditions for future attempts, 88.
Chöl-àbad, ` quarters in the desert ', cultivation at, 799 ; ruined circumvallation near, 799.
Chöl-kol, ` desert lake ', 83.
Chong-shahr (Kucha), circumvallation at, 8x9.
CHOU HUA-NAN, Mr., Hsien-kuan of Maomei, 409.
CHOU WU-HSÜEH, Tao-t`ai of Su-chou, makes arrangement for expedition to Etsin-gol, 404.
Chronology of Kings of Kao-tch`ang, App. A, 986.
Ch`ii family, rulers of Kao-ch`ang, 576 ; close relations with Turks, 576. See also K`iu.
Ch`ü, a lady of the family, sepulchral inscription of, (Astena), 647.
Ch`ü Chih-shêng, king of Turfân, conquered by Chinese, 577.
Ch`ü Han-ku, king of Kao-ch`ang, 619. CHU Juz-cR`IH, Mr., Tao-t`ai of Ak-su, hospitality of, 835.
Ch`ü Po-ya, king of Turfân, pays homage to Sui emperor, 576.
Ch`ü Wên-t`ai, king of Kao-ch`ang, close relations with western Turks, 577, 578, 579 ; quarrel with China and death, 577.
Chü-ch`ü, family of Hun origin, conquests of, in Kan-su, 575.
Chü-ku, Chinese military colony in Chüshih, 574.
Ch`ii-li, Chinese military colonies in, 770, 819 ; distance of, from Wei-li, 777 n. 4 ; location of, 789 n. 4, 794 ; used as base by Chêng Chi, 796.
Chii-lu granary, on ` route of the centre ', located near Besh-toghrak, 308, 322,
Chü-mi in Tang annals, name for Karategin, 893.
Chü-mi, eastern, one of the six kingdoms of Chü-shih, 540 ; location of, 543, 552 ; extent of, under Later Hans, 552.
Chü-mi-chih, Wu-k`ung's, identified with Kara-tegin, 880, 891.
Chü-mi-t`o, identified with Ptolemy's Kiimedoi, 848 ; located in Kara-tegin,
Chü-p`i-lo, stage in An-hsi—Ak-su route, 8x7.
Chu-pin, Li Tao-yuan's name for Yingp`an, 293, 724, 762, 765.
Ch`u-sê, capital of Ch`ü-mi, 893. Chü-chih, the six kingdoms of, 54o, 541 ; identification of, 542.
Chü-shih, ` Anterior ' and ` Posterior ' = Kao-ch`ang and Pei-t`ing, Turfân, and Guchen : interdependence of, in Han times, 568 ; routes connecting, 568, 569 ; contrast in climate, 568, 569 ; influence of geographical difference on history of, 558, 568, 573, 582, 585.
Chü-shih Posterior = Guchen, 310 ; residence of king, 558 ; defection of, to Huns, 571 ; difficulties of Chinese administration, 572 sqq.
Chü-shih-tê, city, in Tang itinerary, location of, 840.
Chü-yen, locality in Han Annals, 54o. Ch`u-yüeh, branch of Western Turks, 545.
ch`üan, wooden tally cut in two, 352. Ch`uan-tzû-chieh, Chinese settlement, prosperity of, 558•
Chuk-tam, boundary of Bugur and
Kuchâ districts, 799 ; watch-post and
Muhammadan cemetery, 799. Chumarkhan, fort, 43.
Chün-chiu, king of Posterior Chü-shih, defeated by Pan Yung, 574.
Chunam, painted, 109.