Toghraklik, site N. of Charkhlik, ruined enclosure at, 166 n. 7.
Toghraks, wild poplars : Toghraks, dead, marking old water channels or former flood levels, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 144, 183, 184, 192, 193, 205, 206, 208, 219, 364, 733, 737, 745, 766, 767.
Toghraks, living, 63, 430, 562, 723, 729 ; marking ancient river-beds, 364, 749, 768, 774.
Tokhari B, ancient Indo-European language of Kuchâ, 803.
Tokhâristân, dispatches from ruler of, to Chinese emperor, 3, 37.
Tokhta Akhün, treasure-seeker of Islamabad, 93, 100, 18o, 273.
Tokhta Akhün-ku-atkan-köl, basin, 182. Toksu, ancient circumvallation at, 8o8. T`o-1i or T`o-leih, kingdom of, mentioned
by Fa-hsien, 20 ; identified with
toilet box deposited with dead, (Astàna) 665, 705.
Tong. = Tonguz-bash.
Tonguluk-bulak, near Murtuk, cultivation at, 636.
Tonguz-bash, ruined town SW. of Kuehl,
809 ; finds at, and date, 8x o, 822 ;
remains of Buddhist shrines, 810. top-knot, on stucco relief, (Lâl-tagh) 8r. T `ou-tun, ` the chief tower ', modern
name for T. XLIII. 1, 395.
` Town of the Dragon ', Li Tao-yüan's story of, 293, 762 ; not a ruined site, 294 ; story suggested by belt of Mesas along Chinese route of the centre',
Toy. 294. Toyuk, objects from ruins, 620 sqq.
Toyuk, village of Turfân, 6X4 ; previous exploration of, 614 ; ruined shrines, 615 sq. ; frs. of stucco relievos, 616 ; frescoes showing Western influence, 617 ; frescoes from cave-shrine, 6x8 ; objects from, 62o sqq. ; coins from, 6x4 sqq., 993 ; pottery from, 1014 ; documents from, 1029, 1048.
transport : skill of Chinese organization in dealing with, 887 sqq. ; use of camels, 340 ; cart traffic, 34o.
tray, wooden, (Niya) 146 n. 20, 151.
` treasure-seekers , native, 92 ; destruction caused by, 44o, 8X6.
` tree of life ', in Sasanian art, possibly
foreshadowed in Chinese art, 244. trees, treatment of, on figured silks, 251;
in Chinese painting, (Astàna) 656. trefoil arch, containing figure of Buddha,
(Ch`ien-fo-tung reliefs) 361.
Trimurti, three-headed deity, in frescoes,
129, 132, 137 ; in block-prints, 494 ;
drawing, 505 ; on seal, 822, 829. Tsagan-gulu, springs of, 527.
Tsê-tien, ` fertilizing the fields ', temple of, mentioned by Wang Yen-tê, located at Chik-tam, 582 n. 6.
Ts`in, lake, in Han Annals, identified with Tur-köl, 54.r.
T Bung-ling, meridional range dividing
Pamirs from basin of Tarim, 764 n.14. tu-hu, `Protector-General' or ` Governor-
General ', 795 n. r r.
T`u-lu fan, name of Tura!' city in Ming Annals, 717.
Tüge-tam, ruined enclosure, 800.
tugh, weir for reservoir, 181.
Tügine-tar, rock gate of Kara-cash, 63. Tui valley, route to Yarkhun, 44. Tülküch-köl, lakelet, 142. Tülküch-köl-tarim, agricultural colony,
140 ; threatened abandonment of, 140. Tum-shuk, village, change of road near,
837 ; ruined Buddhist shrines near,
TUMANOVICH, Captain, Russian commandant at Nut, kind reception by, 876.
Tun-huang, revisited, 354 sqq. ; official changes, 354. See Limes.
Tun-huang Lu, manuscript of Tang period, on Yüeh ya-ch`iian, 356. Tung-êrh-shan, well, 530.
Tungan rebellion, devastation caused by,
Tungan troops, suppress Chinese ` Revolutionaries ', 16o, 163.
Titan Beg of Shakh-dara, local information received from, 879, 88x.
Turfân, archaeology of : abundance of pre-Muhammadan remains, 566 ; previous explorations of, 566 ; collection of archaeological finds in Berlin, 567 ; difficulty caused by continuous occupation, 586 ; ruined sites of, 587 sqq. See Kao-ch`ang, Kara-khöja, Toyuk, Murtuk, Astana, &c.
TurfAn, history of : Chinese historical notices, 568 sqq. ; part of Anterior Chü-shih, 568 ; close connexion with Posterior Chü-shih (Guchen), 568 ; common political fate of both territories, 569 ; description of, in Former Han Annals, 569 sq. ; used as base for Hun raids on Chinese route to ` Western countries ', 570 ; Chinese attacks upon, 89-67 s.c., 570 ; Chinese control established, 6o B.C., 571 ; defection to Huns, 571 ; Chinese authority annihilated, A.D. 23, 572.
from later Han to Tang times, 572 sqq. ; Hun domination of, 572 ; Chinese control re-established, A.D. 89, 573 ; abandoned to Huns, A.D. 107, 573 ; Chinese influence during Chin epoch, 575 ; secured by Wu-hui, 595 ; under rule of An-chou, 575 ; predominance of the Juan-Juan in fifth century, 576 ; rule of Ch`ü family, S76 ; homage paid to Sui emperor, 576 ; described in Pei-shih, 576 ; Chinese customs and administration introduced, 575, 576 ; dangers of
desert route to Tun-huang, 576 ; notices of, in Tang situ, 577 ; Chinese expedition against Ch`ü Wên-tai, 577 ; organized under Protectorate of Anhsi, 578 ; Hsüan-tsang's passage through, 579 ; difficulty of maintaining communication with. China in A.D. 781, 580 ; proposal to surrender to Tibetans, 580 ; final phase of Chinese occupation, 580 ; increasing Tibetan attacks, 58o ; under the Uighurs, 581 sq. ; importance of, to occupiers of Guchen, 582 ; chief seat of Uighur domination, 582 ; prosperity of, 583 n. 6 ; summer migration of king to Pei-t`ing, 584 ; Uighur dominion retained under Mongol rule, 584 ; passes under suzerainty of Chagatai's family, 585 ; late survival of Buddhism, 585•
Turfân basin, physical features of : aridity, 583 : necessity of irrigation, 568, 586 ; fertility and continuous cultivation, 568, 579, 586; depth below sea-level, 711 ; salt marsh in depression compared with Lop sea-bed, 7x9.
communications : traditions of desert route to Tun-huang, 273, 310, 377 ; route to Lop, 720 ; to Lou-lan, 743 ; importance to Chinese of road through Turfan to west, 574, 578; meeting-place for Chinese and Western trade, 672.
Tur-kol, lake, abundant grazing lands,
Turdi, Dak carrier, 319.
Turkestan, Russian, permission to travel through granted, 843.
Turks language, predominance of in Tarim basin due to Uighur domination, 582.
Turkish tribes occupying Barkul in Tang period, 545.
Turkomân race, Iranian blood in, 898 ;
slave raids in Khorasan, 898. TURNER, Colonel H. H., Survey of India,
help of, ix.
Tushkan-chöl, camp at, 90.
Tùtins, reed rafts used on Hamlin, 925 Il. 14.
Tuzluk (` the salt place '), salt diggings, 84.
U.Z. = Ulügh-ziarat.
Udyâna, or Uddiyana, ancient name of Swat, 20.
Uighurs, or Uigurs, migrate to S. and SW. from Mongolia in ninth century, 58x ; break Tibetan supremacy in E. Turkestan, 58i ; extent of their dominion, 581, 583 ; effects of their domination in Turkestan, 581 ; Wang Yen-tê's description of, 584 ; dominion over Turfân maintained under Mongol supremacy, 584 ; government shifted to Kucha in eleventh century, 584 ; mixture of religions among, 585.