Sec. ii] FIGURINES AND SEPULCHRAL DEPOSITS IN GROUPS ii—v 651
had a baldachin-shaped roof rising above walls 3 feet high. A roof of the same shape was found also in ii. I. The wall facing the entrance was whitewashed up to a height of 1 foot 8 inches and on this were paintings divided into four panels. That on the extreme left had become effaced. The next showed on the right a man, and on the left, facing him, a woman, obviously representing the wife. In the third panel a poorly drawn camel and horse and in the fourth a cart drawn by an ox were still recognizable, together with some flowering plants. The work was done in bold outlines but roughly, recalling in technique the rough pictures on paper from Chien-fo-tung. Two bodies were actually found in the tomb, both lying face downwards, as thrown out from their coffins. A half-charred piece of wood showed what had become of the latter. The bodies were wrapped in pieces of coarse cotton fabrics and plain silk, all rotten. The remains of deposits symbolizing the outfit and attendants provided for the dead were found on either side of the entrance, where they had been thrown by the plunderers. They comprised the roughly carved wooden figures of two men and a woman, ii. 2. 05-7 (Pl. CIII) ; wooden legs of a cow or bull, ii. 2.08—I0 ; shaped pieces of wood, ii. 2. OI I, 016-17, which appear to fit into a frame and may have belonged to the model of a house ; miniature carriage wheels, ii. 2.018-20; miniature flags, ii. 2. 02, &c. The elliptical black-lacquered wooden bowl ii. 2. 021, repaired in antiquity, is of interest, as it is of the typical shape of those excavated along the Han Limes. The large lacquered tray ii. 2. 01 was found broken into many pieces. The two pottery tazzas ii. 2. 022-3 (Pl. XC) differ markedly in shape from the pottery found in cemetery i. Two other tombs that I had cleared at this group ii yielded no finds of interest, one being completely empty and the other holding only one body, clothed as those in ii. 2, without any deposits near it. It may be noted here that the entrances of these tombs in ii lay from the north-west.
I next moved our party of diggers to a group of tombs, Ast. iii, marked by a regular enclosure near the north-western extremity of the area. It contained nine tombs (see plan PI. 33) ; all had their entrances towards the south-west and several among them had evidently been recently opened. The middle one of the front row, iii. 1, had two oblong anterooms and a chamber about 8 feet square. No remains of any sort were found in it, except a large number of remarkably well preserved pieces of fancy pastry scattered over the platform which was meant to accommodate the coffin with the dead. The remains of fine pastry recovered here are as remarkable for their variety of shapes as for their excellent conservation. As PI. XCII shows, there are represented among them flower-shaped tartlets of different kinds (iii. I. 021-5, 070) with neatly made petal borders, some retaining traces of jam or some similar substance placed in the centre ; bow-knots and other ` twists ', iii. I. 030-41, 084-7, 094 ; buns, divided cross-wise, 026-9 ; ` cracknels', 071-83, and ` straws ', 01—I2. More elaborate productions of the confectioner's art are the thin ornamented ` wafers ' 013-20, 042-65, and the ogee-shaped open-work cakes 066-9, with finely ribbed sprays of foliage, &c. Some black grapes also were found here, shrivelled but otherwise in good condition. Considering the brittleness of all this pastry it seems difficult to believe that it could have occupied the place where it was found before the coffin was removed from there. But no indication was discovered of the tray or other receptacle originally containing it.
The tomb iii. 2 to the east of the one just described had been searched some years before by Mashik, who remembered having seen and left behind in it numerous clay figures. His statement was proved correct by a number of interesting finds. In clearing the approach trench there was found just outside the entrance a Kai yuan coin, of the type current throughout the Tang period, showing little or no wear. The tomb chamber, as seen in Pl. 33, was approached through two narrow anterooms, of which the inner one had a rounded niche, 3 feet deep, on either side intended for the accommodation of clay images representing guardians of the dead or his attendants in another