Appendix C] PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE PAMIRS 997
mode of life and exclusiveness rather suggest that they represent the remains of a submerged aboriginal population ; see Fig. 454.
(14) Biloch ; military levies from Baluchistan.
The:few historic and linguistic notes given above are added merely as a supplementary interest. In the subsequent discussion attention has been focused on the physical characters of the various groups, and evidence of connexion derived from other sources has been practically neglected.
Head-length. (Table I.)
As regards this absolute, the Sistani show the longest heads (average, 186.24), followed closely by the Sayad (185.55), Tajik (185.19), and Biloch (184.83).
At the other end of the scale stand the Ishkashmi (174.71), separated by an appreciable interval from the Wakhi (176.74), Yazgulami (178.90), Shughnani (179.22), and Özbeg (179.22). In the middle fall the peoples of Roshan, Darwaz, and Karategin, and also the Kirghiz. In the respect of head-length, therefore, the populations lying along the Ab-i-Panja tend to approximate, while the Tajik of Bokhara stand with the peoples of Sistan and its immediate region.
Head-breadth. (Table I.)
In head-breadth, as might be expected, the Kirghiz lead (154.59), but the Tajik follow closely (154.06), with the Wakhi (153.50) and Özbeg (153.44). In head-length the Tajik approximated to the Sistan group (Sistani, Sayad, and Biloch), but in this case the latter stand right at the other end of the scale. The Biloch show the lowest figure for head-breadth (141.91) ; next come the Sistani (142.35), the Sayad (143.18), and, rather unexpectedly, the Darwazi (145.54)• The rest of the peoples, being those who occupy the valleys running from the Ab-i-Panja, show averages which stand extraordinarily close ; no less than eight falling between 150.00 and 148'45.
Cephalic Index. (Table I.)
The Sistani, Biloch, and Sayad form the most dolichocephalic group (76.50, 76.81, and 77.21 respectively), separated by a perceptible gap from the Darwazi, *hose index (79.88) is the next lowest. Most brachycephalic are the Wakhi (86.89), Özbeg (86.19), and Ishkashmi (85.71). The rest, including the Tajik of Bokhara, fall between 79.88 (Darwazi) and 84•o4 (Kirghiz).
The head-measurements, therefore, appear to indicate that the Sistani-Sayad-Biloch constitute a group at one end of the series, while the Wakhi and Ishkashmi, the Turki Özbeg, and the more Mongoloid Kirghiz stand together at the other end. In between, the peoples of the Ab-i-Panja and its valleys do not differ greatly among themselves ; while the Tajik of Bokhara, tending first to one extreme and then to the other in their absolutes, fall fairly near the centre in their index.
Nasal-length. (Table II.)
The averages for nose-length show a grouping which is interesting as compared with head-measurements. The extremes are Sistani (50.31) and Özbeg (44.44). And since the Sayad (49.35) and Biloch (49•0o) fall near the Sistani, while the Kirghiz (45•o2) fall near the Özbeg, opposition between the Sistan-Biloch group and the Mongolo-Turki group is maintained. But the Wakhi (49.78) and Ishkashmi (49.38), who in head-measurements approximated to the Kirghiz and Özbeg, now appear grouped with the Sistani-Sayad. The rest fall between 48.62 (Shughnani) and 46.00 (Yazgulami) with the exception of the Wanji, who, on this occasion, take a position between the Özbeg and Kirghiz with an average of 44.74.
Nasal-breadth. (Table II.)
This measurement produces results which are rather confusing. The Wanji, who in nose-length stood between the Özbeg and Kirghiz at the bottom of the scale, now show the lowest nasal-breadth (25.04). And, though the Özbeg are not far off (26.56), the Kirghiz show by far the highest figure (34.20), separated by some distance from the Tajik (31.43), who are followed by the Ishkashmi and Wakhi (29.35 and 28.41) respectively. Of the rest, the Sistani-Biloch group maintain their connexion, falling together in the middle of the rest. The Darwazi and Yazgulami are towards the lower end of the scale, next to the Wanji, with averages of 26.08 and 25.80 respectively.
II 6 bi