T. xxxvii. e, 367. T. xxxvii. i, remains of cella of temple, 369 ; modern shrine close by, 369. T. xL. a, remains of tower and walled enclosure, 372. T. xL. b, c, remains of, sighted, 373. T. XL. b, typical tower of stamped clay, 373. T. xL. c, commands view of Wan-shan-tzû defile, 373 ; peculiarity of construction, 374 ; finds from, 374. T. xLI. b, remains of, and finds at, 376. T. xu. c, clay terrace converted into tower, 376. T. XLI. d, undermined by wind-erosion, 376. T. XLI. e, 376 ; remains of watch-room, 377. T. XLI. f, large restored tower, 377 ; finds from, 377, 420. T. XLI. g, late enclosure, 377 ; finds from, 421. T. XLI. h, ruined tower, 377. T. XLI. 1, finds at, 382, 421. T. XLI. j, k, positions of, 382. T. xLI. 1, ruined Stûpas, 382. T. xLI.
m, of late origin ; known as Ma-kut'an, 383. T. XLI. n, halting-place of Hâmi caravans, 383.
watch-towers : T. XLII. a, d, reason for proximity of, 385 ; walled enclosure near T. XLII. d marks a ` barrier station ' of road to Mimi, 385. T. xLII. e, finds at, 389. T. XLIII. a, finds at, 391. • T. XLIII, b-d, 391. T. XLIII. g, remains of, 392, 423. T. XLIII. h, hillock walled in as watchtower, 392 ; finds at, 392, 393, 423. T. XLIII. i, finds at, 393, 423, 424. T. XLIII. j, brick-built tower S. of Limes, 393, 424 ; finds at, 393. T. XLIII. k, finds at, 394, 424. T. XLIII. 1, restored tower and enclosure, 394 ; signs of occupation till medieval times, 394. T. XLIV. a, first of a line of towers, extending S. of Limes, 398, 399 ; finds of Han period, 400, 426. T. xLIV. b, similar in construction to T. XLIV. a, 400 ; NE. wall protected by hurdle revetment, 400 ; finds at, 400. T. XLIV. c, remains of clay-built tower, 401. T. XLIV. d, brick tower with guardroom, 401 ; finds at, 401, 426. T. XLIV. e, mound and enclosure built of brushwood, 399 ; a herdsmen's station, 399. T. XLIV. f, probably of late origin, 401. T. xis. a, b, built of stamped clay and tamarisk layers, 523. T. xLV. c-g, sighted but not visited, 523. T. xis'. a, b, tower of clay and brushwood, 407 ; finds of Han pottery, 407. T. xLvx. c, rough stone walls, 407. T. XLVI. d, 407. T. XLVI. f, g, scanty remains of watch-posts, 407. T. XLVI. h, finds at ruined tower, 408. T. xLVI. i, j, k, 408. T. XLVI. 1, modern name, Hunghsia-lung, 408. T. XLVIII. a, b, brick-built towers, 411. T. XLVIII. c, fort guarding approach along Etsin-gol, 412 ; similar to fort at ` Jade Gate', 412. T. XLVIII. d, ruined fort and en-
closure guarding river, 412 sq. ; plan of fort, 413 ; uncertainty as to date, 413. T. XLVIII. e, circumvallation, probably of late date, 412. T. xLVIII. f, solid brick tower, 414 ; an advanced
watch-post, 414. T. XLVIII. g, remains of, 507.
Limes, antiques from, 414 sqq. ; Chinese coins from, 992 ; pottery from, 1013; silks from, 244 ; construction of wall,
349, 351, 390 ; compared with wall
at L.E., 261 ; watch-towers compared
with L.J. 387 ; finds from, similar to those on ` route of the centre ', 296.
Limnaea, mollusc, shells of, indicating former presence of fresh water, 284.
linen (?) fabric, fr., (Lou-lan) 202.
lion's head, on terra-cotta mask (Khotan) I18, I19.
lions : on figured silk, (Lou-lan) 246, 254 ; on glass seal, (Toyuk) 632 ; on stucco relief, (Ghàgha-shahr) 912 ; on woollen tapestry, (Lou-lan) 285 ; rampant on robe in fresco, (Toyuk)
winged : on figured silk, (Lou-lan)
248 ; confronted on medallion, (Astons) 697.
Liu-chung, present Luk-shun, oasis in
Liu-kou, well of, 527.
Liu-ku, the ` Valley of the Willows ' in Tang itinerary, 563, 564 ; notices of, in Han Annals, 564.
Liw-bar, cliff of, legend of demon, 870. Lo-to-ch`êng, ruined site W. of Kao-t'ai, 509 ; recent date indicated by coins,
509, 993 ; ascribed by local tradition to Tang times, 509.
Lo-t`o-ch`üan, springs of, 525.
lock, wooden, ` striking plate ' of, (Niya)
Lbczv, Professor L. de, help of, xix ; on
Nan-kou-ch`êng, 51x sq.
loess ridge, (Ma-ti-ssû) 513.
Lokapâlas, in block-print, (Khara-khoto)
4$1, 485, 494 ; in fresco, (Toyuk), 630. loom, sticks from, (Murtuk), 636, 639. loopholes, in wall of tower, 769, 864, 867,
Lop, Marco Polo's name for Charkhlik,
163 ; Chinese Lou-lan (q. v.) or Shan-
Lop desert, exploration of, difficulties
caused by Chinese obstruction, 175 sqq. ; plan of campaign, 177 ; physical features of, between the Tarim and Lou-lan, 209 ; southern zone of lagoons fed by Tarim, 209 ; northern zone, wind-eroded desert with ancient riverbeds, old delta of Kuruk-daryà (q. v.), 210 ; temperature of, in summer, 340
Lop desert sites, Chinese coins from,
991 sq. ; pottery from, 1013.
Lop sea-bed, dried up, journey across,
297 sqq. ; depressions with corrugated salt surface, 297; salt-encrusted hillocks and shor, 298 ; belt of Yardangs, 298 ; sea-like expanse of salt basin, 298 ; hummocky salt crust, 300 ; ridges of hard salt cakes, 300 ; eastern belt of Yardangs, 301 ; prevalence of dust haze, 306 ; superstitious fear of demons haunting it, 306 ; south-eastern bay extended to Yantak-kuduk, 307 ; eastern extremity of, 321 ; westernmost extension of, surveyed by Afrazgul, 745.
Lopliks, inhabitants of Lop, 163 ; superstitious fears of, 267 ; unfitted for agriculture, 779.
LORIMER, Miss F. M. G., assistance of, xv, xix ; ` Inventory List of Coins ', App. B, 988 sqq.
lotus : in frescoes, (Kuduk-köl) 132 ; (Domoko) 138 sq. ; (Kao-ch`ang) 598 ; stone relief, (Toyuk), 618 ; stucco reliefs, (Balawaste) 136 ; on carved nimbus, (Ulûgh-mazar), 135 ; with seed-pod : fresco, (Toyuk) 617 ; with seed-table : in frescoes, (Balawaste) 137 ; in block-prints, (Kara-khoto), 481 ; figure rising from, (Murtuk) 638.
See also Buddha.
lotus-bud pedestals, in stucco relief fr.,
lotus cushion, in frescoes, 139.
lotus petals : clay stucco, (Kharakhoto) 468, 471 ; stucco relief, 474, 477 sq. ; (Toyuk) 624, 625 ; fresco, (Toyuk) 629.
Lou-lan, town of, mentioned by Li Tao-yuan, 292 ; located at L.A. 293 ; centre of Chinese administration, 275. indigenous inhabitants of : burials, dress, and racial type revealed at L.F. cemetery, 266 ; semi-nomadic herdsmen, fishers, and hunters, 266.
territory : king of, captured by Chan P`o-nu, 570.
Lou-lan sites, pottery of, 1014.
Lou-lan sites :
L.A. : work resumed at, 214 ; photographs taken, 215 ; finds in refuse heaps, 215 sq. ; compared with finds from Limes and Niya, 216 ; Chinese, Kharosthi, and other documents, 216 ; finds of ` Tati ' type on eroded ground, 217 ; coins, 217 ; Sogdian MS. frs. from, Io31.
L.C. : ancient burial-place on salt-impregnated clay Mesa, 225 ; Mesa top selected for burials on account of its height, 226 ; large grave-pits filled with mixed remains of earlier burials,
227 ; _ reason of reburial, 228 ; burials compared with L.H. and Ying-p`an,
228 ; abundant finds of textiles and other objects of Han period, 226 sq., e3I sqq. ; approximate date of re-