The main bulk of the Charchan pottery, a coarse, thick-walled and brick-red earthenware, must be post-Han, and probably originates from the time of the later occupations, i. e. from the T'ang, Sung, and Yüan dynasties. A minor part of the sherds shows a dark grey,
Fig. 47. Drawing of the earthenware bowl K.13345: I from
Charchan. Half size. well-burnt ware, Pl. 36:7. Pl.
36: 5 is brownish. These are not so thick-walled though they have belonged to large vessels.
As is the case at Vash-shahri, a few potsherds show incised characters, probably Tibetan, Pl. 37 : 3 (and possibly also Pl. 37 : I), which gives a hint as to their date. The Tibetan occupation of Eastern Turkistan lasted from 670 to 692, and from the middle of the eighth century for one hundred years. I am indebted to Professor HELMER SMITH, Upsala, for a confirmation of the nature of the incised characters.
Most of the handles are loop-shaped, but there are also lugs. A single case of a horizontally applied handle is shown on Pl. 37:4.
Spindle whorls were made of potsherds, but Pl. 37 : 9 shows a fragmentary whorl which was originally made for this purpose. It is also of earthenware and has some impressed dots.
The bowls PI. 35 : 5-7 have the same shape as Fig. 47. Two of these I know myself as coming from graves inside the Kohna-shahr, and I am pretty sure that all the complete vessels have a similar origin. We must also reckon with the possibility that most of the small finds such as beads and other ornaments or metal fittings have come from destroyed graves. Many potsherds, on the other hand, must be regarded as refuse from dwellings.
Among the five copper coins obtained, one is a "Goose-eye", i. e. one of those much debased coins so common during the final period of the Lou-lan time. A K'aiyüan coin is a T'ang issue, and two Sung coins bear the periods corresponding to 1017-22 and 1023-32. The fifth coin, Pl. 33 : 9, has exactly the same shape as the ordinary Chinese ones of the T'ang and later dynasties; the four characters, however, are non-Chinese and illegible. It is apparently an imitation of a Chinese coin.
There are three bronze buckles all without tongues. Pl. 33 : 3 somewhat recalls a buckle of T'ang? type from the Togujai site (Stein 1907, Pl. LI, M. oo1. g), and PI. 33 : 2 has a parallel from the Lou-lan station (Stein 1921, Pl. XXXVI, L. A.