facial instrument Pl. 5 : I was found together with the drill Pl. 4: 7 and an untrimmed flake. The first object may have served as a knife or cleaver.
Cores or nuclei of flint are not uncommon in the Lop desert. Even in Dr. HEDIN'S old collection there is one, and here some specimens have been reproduced on Pl. 4: 16, 20, 22 and Pl. 5: 14. As a rule these cores are less regularly shaped than those from Inner Mongolia, partly owing to the fact that they have been flaked off in more than one direction. Most of them are micronuclei.
The flakes struck off from the cores are very common. They are slender, as a rule very small, and elegantly made. The larger specimens, which are up to 8 cm. long, may have been used as knives without any extra handle, whereas the ordinary sized flakes have probably been fitted into grooved handles of bone or wood and used both as knives and sickles.
No cores answering to the long flakes have been found. This is only natural, as cores get used up through the flaking-off process. On flakes protected from wind erosion the untrimmed edges still retain their sharpness.
Pl. 5: 6 has both edges retouched, and the spoon-shaped end may possibly have been suitable as a small scraper, which is also the case with Pl. 5 : 7, where the median ridge is chipped from both sides, forming a zig-zag. Pl. 5: 5 shows a thicker flake with a similarly treated ridge.
Drills and awls were made from the flakes. Pl. 4: 7 is a typical drill, the retouches along the tip being placed on alternate sides. K. 13386: 6 is another drill, and Pl.
8 shows an agate drill made of an irregular flake with two blunt points.
In our collections from Lop-nor there are only some atypical scrapers. This is a difference between Singer and Lop-nor. STEIN gives a picture of a good scraper (1928 Pl. XXII, C. xciii. 0158).
The occurrence of true arrow-heads is also very rare. Besides those mentioned from No. 28 there is only Pl. 4: 12 from the northern border of the delta.
The two somewhat similar flint objects Pl. 5: 2 and 5: 8 are either coarse knives or unfinished points.
The last group of Lop-nor implements are the polished axes of green chert or other jade-like stones. The largest specimen is the beautiful axe Pl. 5: 16 which was found by a Turkish servant on the eastern side of The Small River south of Yaqinliq-köl (point 2 on the map Fig. 36). It measures 185 mm. in length. Pl. 5: II is of exactly the same type with convex cutting edge, but only 5o mm. long, but the rest of the small axes have very straight cutting edge, Pl. 5 : 12-13, 15 and 18-21. Pl.
21, of light brown chert, is the only axe which is thoroughly polished all over. The others have only the cutting-edge properly finished but no real butt and only