sheep-breeding was of importance along the lower Tarim side by side with fishing and agriculture.
Turning to the south we passed the southern end of Yaqinliq-köl and entered an area of small dunes, 2-4 m. high, and created by NE winds. Single dead tamarisk cones, and a very few dead poplars broke the monotony of the flat desert.
3 km. S of the southernmost part of the lake I found a small bronze knife (Pl. 3o: II), a couple of potsherds, and an iron fragment on a clay surface that was free of sand.
After proceeding 6 km. we touched the eastern border of a reedy marsh, 2-3 km. wide, and with an extension in NNW—SSE. It was called Qum-köl. At high water the pools and lakelets were said to form a river course of some size. This was our first encounter with what I call "The Small River".
Later on in the summer of 1934 Mr. PARKER C. CHEN mapped the southern shore of Qum-darya, and he then discovered how The Small River branched off from Qum-darya about 12 km. above Yaqinliq-köl, forming an intricate system of lakes and marshes, one of its branches being in direct communication with Yaqinliq-köl. (Cf. the map Fig. 36.)
Our route continued through the dune area to the east of The Small River Pl. II a, the dunes being 6—io m. high. Along this part of the route a Turkish servant picked up the beautiful jade axe Pl. 5: 16, the largest axe known from the Lop desert. After I I km. we reached a satin a, which served as the summer abode of another Turkish family. Here the river makes a couple of bends eastwards. We crossed the river for the first time, the bed being hardly to m. wide, but it was surrounded by small irregular lakes and reedy marshes which robbed the stream of much water; and there may be other branches which we did not touch. Young tamarisks were growing abundantly, and grass and reeds afforded excellent pasturage.
Less than 3 km. due south of the last-mentioned s a t in a there is another one belonging to a young able Turk bearing the name ABDURAHMAN. From his place onwards the river seems to follow a single bed for several kilometres. The water was running fast over small thresholds in a bed not exceeding 10 m. in width.
About 2 km. SSE of ABDURAHMAN'S place the dune area, for a short distance, closes in on both sides of the river. After that we traversed big expanses of mixed reeds and tamarisks; two abandoned s a t m a s were passed. The river was lost sight of on our left. About 12 km. due SE of ABDURAHMAN'S place we reached another Turkish settlement situated at a small lake called Pataliq-köl; it was fed by the river and had many curiously winding bays, as seen in Pl. X a, a photo which also clearly shows the high-water marks on the muddy shores.
From there the river takes a southerly course for Io—I I km. with sand dunes on both sides at a distance not exceeding I km. Burial place 4 — to be described presently — is situated on this part of the river "valley", and near to it we found the