C. RUINS DISCOVERED IN 1931 AND 1934.
In 1931 Mr. CHEN found two ruined houses near to the north of the present head of Qum-darya's delta. The western one was a house of the same construction as Dr. HEDIN'S Ruin I (cf. Fig. 34) but smaller. On the map Fig. 37 it is marked 401. Mr. CHEN made a trial excavation there and found the wooden object Pl. 31 : 8, which is no doubt a die. It can be compared with Stein 1928 Pl. XXVI, L. M. I. 012 though the marks are not identical. This is an uncommon shape of die and unusually large. The following articles were also recovered from here : a small piece of a fish-net with thin threads, a fragment from the sole of a shoe woven of hair, and a bunch of black feathers.
The eastern ruin, about 3 km. to the ENE of the other is described by Mr. CHEN as a site where a house was going to be built, there being about ten worked timber like beams or posts — lying around. It is marked with the number 404 on the map Fig. 37. The bronze dress-hook Pl. 3o: 7 was found here. It is clumsy and of
inferior workmanship, the "seams" from the casting are not removed, which makes it likely that the hook is of local make. It might very well be of the Han period when such long hooks came into general use. A very similar specimen was found in the tomb of WANG KUANG in Korea (Oba and Kayamoto Pl. 33:1).
8 km. NE of the Lou-lan station HÖRNER discovered the ruins of a pottery kiln close to 384 on the map Fig. 37 on the shore of a freshwater lake. The ground was quite strewn with potsherds at this site.
A few logs shaped by man were observed by HÖRNER in the desert about 13 km. east of the Lou-lan station, where they had formed part of a house not very far from the edge of the salt crust.
On the big mesa LM3 about 2 km. to the west of STEIN'S castrum L. E. HÖRNER noticed the remnants of a cave. On the map Fig. 37 only the adjacent cemetery has
been marked (No. 390). The inner wall was formed by the mesa clay in situ, the
outer wall was built of blocks of salt-encrusted clay. The interior of the vaulted structure was plastered with clay containing straw. The cave was 1.5 m. wide, 1.3
m. high and had been more than 2 m. long. The only "finds" made here was a lot of bones of rodents. HÖRNER suggests that the cave had been used as a granary, where rats had feasted on the stores left, and been killed when part of the roofing crashed down on them.
This structure is of special interest as it is unique in the Lop-nor region.
In 1934, finally, HEDIN and CHEN found a hitherto unnoticed house to be treated here. In the same season Mr. HUANG WEN-PI revisited his ruin T'u-ken, but it is
unknown to me if he made any discoveries at other places in the Lop-nor region. During this visit in 1934 Mr. HUANG found two wooden records on which are mentioned the granaries of Chü-lu-tzu and Chiao-ho-ch'ü. (Huang 1935) . The first place is called Chü-lu in the Han annals and STEIN has placed it at Besh-toghraq.