The general geology of the mountain ranges that border the plains of Turkestan on the east is too large a subject and too little connected with the special interests of our expedition to have been itself an object of special study by our party. Moreover, it is precisely in general geology that Russian explorers have done such excellent work in this region. But the more modern history of the mountains, as recorded in their physiographic development, seems to have been less examined ; and since this phase of the subject is closely associated with our study of the plains, we gave it our first attention here, as we had previously done in the Kopet Dagh. My own report deals with the Tian Shan ranges between the provinces of Fergana and Semiryetshensk. The report of Mr. Huntington sets forth the results of his visit to Kashgar after leaving me at Issik Kul. The report hereto appended by Mr. R. W. Pumpelly tells of his observations on the mountains south of Fergana during a visit to Lake Kara Kul on the Pamir.
PREPARATION FOR THE MOUNTAIN JOURNEY.
My party from Andizhan across the mountains to Lake Issik Kul included Mr. Huntington as assistant and Mr. Brovtzine as interpreter. General Ivanof, governor-general of Turkestan, had given us during our stay at Tashkent letters of introduction to various officials; among others, to the governor of the Andizhan district, Colonel Korytof, from whom we had much assistance in securing our outfit. He detailed a member of his police force, a Sart of marked intelligence, to act as our head-man and cook, and we had much efficient service from him. A second man was engaged to look after our three pack horses. We received generous aid also from Captain Asatians, secretary of the Military Club at New Marghilan, where we went for certain supplies. It was by Mr. Polovtzof, diplomatic official at Tashkent, and his secretary, Mr. Andreef, that we had been given the practical suggestion of carrying colored handkerchiefs of bright and varied patterns, to serve as small change when paying the Kirghiz for supplies of mutton and milk and for service as guides in the mountains. We had a small canvas tent, but seldom found occasion to use it, as the clean felt tents or " yurts " in the summer camps of the Kirghiz, well furnished with felts, rugs, and silk quilts, were much to be preferred in the cool and occasionally rainy nights in the mountains. We carried no firearms. Besides the local sheets of the 4o-verst map of the " Southern Boundary of Asiatic Russia" (1889), blue-print copies of the contoured 2-versts-to-an-inch map, as far as the sheets were completed along our route, were supplied to us by Major-General Gedeonof, chief of the topographical office at Tashkent, and we can testify to their accurate expression of surface forms. While at Andizhan we had the good fortune to meet Academician Chernichef, director of the Russian Geological Survey, and his assistant, Mr. Korolkof, on their return from a journey to Kashgar. Professor Chernichef gave us much information from his unpublished notes on the geological structure of the mountains; and Mr. Korolkof gave to Mr. Huntington a letter of introduction to his father, General Korolkof, in Przhevalsk, at the eastern end of
Lake Issik Kul.