a wagon road half the way, and then crossed by a trail over Kugart pass in the Fergana range, about 10,500 feet altitude, in the afternoon of July 1, and descended eastward, to camp in the valley of the (eastern) Kugart (figs. 67 and 68), a branch of the Narin, both the Narin and the Kara Darya being branches of the Syr. On July 2 we crossed the Oi-Kain pass eastward to a branch of the (eastern) Kugart, and camped at Urgas-Khan, a summer village of Kirghiz, in a grassy valley at about 8,000 feet elevation. At noon of this day we overtook a large caravan of horses and camels laden with merchandise for the interior. An open pass led us eastward to the headwaters of the Makinal on the morning of July 3, and after crossing a belt of badlands southward, we camped by a new bridge over the Alabuga River. Here we met a Russian lieutenant of engineers, on his way to superintend work on a
Fig. 39.—Kuve-Gen-Shigai-ef and some of his Men at Akh Tash, Son Kul.
road over the Kugart pass. He had lately been in Kashgar, and gave Mr. Huntington some useful suggestions about the road thither. We followed a good road down the Alabuga Valley northeastward (fig. 6o) on July 4, and rested over Sunday, July 5, in the garden of a Kirghiz winter village, Tot-kui. On July 6 we reached the junction of the Alabuga and the Narin, and turned eastward up the Narin Valley, camping for the night on the river bank at an altitude of about 6,500 feet, near a party of Saft sheep dealers, who had just brought a flock of some 3,600 sheep across the river with a loss of only ten, on their way to Fergana. Since July 3 the road had been in a dissected basin of Tertiary conglomerates and clays, which continued eastward far up the Narin Valley.
On July 7 we forded the Narin, and turned northward along a trail up a side valley, camping in the mountains with a party of Kirghiz, who were driving their