84 EXPLORATIONS IN TURKESTAN.
GLACIAL RECORDS IN THE TIAN SHAN.
Russian explorers of the Tian Shan have discovered many glaciers in its higher ranges and have mentioned the occurrence of abandoned moraines lower down the valleys, but as far as I have read there has been little study given to the subdivisions of the glacial period. To this latter subject, therefore, we gave chief attention while we were in the higher mountains. The strong ranges between Issik Kul and Kasghar contain a much finer development of abandoned moraines than any of the ranges that we saw between Andizhan and Issik Kul. The problem of successive glacial epochs is, therefore, much more fully treated in Mr. Huntington's
report than here.
Fig. 49.—The Chalai Range from Kum-ashu Pass in the Kok-tal Range, looking north; a large old Moraine
advances to the left, behind the dark spur. The crest of the Chalai Range is dimmed by clouds.
MORAINES NEAR SON KUL.
Although we recognized the occurrence of glacial cirques at a distance in several high ranges, the first moraines that we carne upon were in the mountains south and northeast of Son Kul. Those in the north-opening valleys of the Dongustau range, south of the lake, were of small size at altitudes about 10,500 feet ; the range summits seemed i,000 or 2,000 feet higher. The glaciated troughs on the southwest side of the Kok-tal range, northeast of the lake, 8 or io miles from its outlet, were recognized in the distance. On riding and walking up to them in the afternoon, we found a well-defined moraine, with mounds and bowlders, kettles and