SECOND EXPEDITION, 1906-08 13
effected made it clear that the Nissa valley did not extend so far to the S.W. as shown in the map of 1900-01 when its glaciers could be sketched only from .a single distant station Above the Brinjak-dawan. 16
From Nissa I proceeded via Karanghu-tagh to the south in a fresh endeavour to trace Johnson's passage of the main range to the latter place in 1865.
route to Ka ranghu-tftga. Y
Baranghu-tagh hillmen offered to this plan and explained its obvious reasons. 17 Nevertheless with yak transport secured under great difficulties we managed to reach the big glaciers which close from the S. W. the head of the Turgap-jilga, a branch of the Busat valley. 18 The ascent made on one of these, in spite of unfavourable weather conditions, made it certain that. no practicable route could lie across the precipitous ice-clad iiange rising above those glaciers on the south, and that this range itself is distinct from the Main K'un-lun chain which further south forms the watershed towards the Kara-kash river drainage.
An attempt to gain from the lower Busat valley another side valley beyond a high spur to the east in which I surmised the approach to Johnson's 'Brinjaa' and 'Naia Khan Pass' to lie was frustrated by an émente of the Tàghliks. Thus the final elucidation of some interesting topographical questions connected with that route and the unexplored tributaries of the Yurung-kash to the south-east had to be left for a future occasion. 19
16 Cf. Mountain Panoramas. p. 20, the remarks on. section iv.B of the view taken from above the Brinjak-dawiin.
17 of Desert Cathay, i. pp. 195 sqq.
ra See Sheets No. 9. A. 4 and No. 10. D. 1. In the latter the line of . ur ascent, made over the southeastern branch of the main glacier (Desert Cathay, i. pp 200 sq:) to an elevation of about 15,6î 0 feet, ought to have been marked, approx. in long. 79° 42'.
rs The surveys made in September, 1£08. along the southern slopes of the southern main li'an-lan range (see below) allowed me to ascertain the position Of the . Yangi-dawin' by which Johnson had crossed it from the side of the Kara-kislc (see Sheet No. 10. C. 1). But owing to the accident which prevented me from an actual ascent to the pass the position, etc., of the considerable valley sepatatin_ it from the range further north which trends towards the triangulated peck 3/52 M (.3,071) and which Johnson crossed by the'Nais. Khnn Pass' (18,660 feet" could be only conjecturally indicated in Sheet No. 10. D. 1.
Johnson's route is summarily described in Itinerary I appended to his report to the Superintendent, Great Trigonometrical Survey, dated April 22, 1866 (reprinted in the Royal Geographical Society's Jour. wad, vol xxxvii, pp.1 sqq.). Its representation in the 'Map illustrating the routes taken by Mr. Johnson iu travelling from Leh to Kbotan end back' is necessarily affected by the extensive ' adjustment' to which his plane-table record appears t.' have been subjected, as explained in Major K. Mason's paper Johnson's 'suppressed ascent' of E 61, in Alpine .Journal, Nov. ember, 1921, vol. xxxty. p. 54. This may account for the very considerable discrepancies between the actual topography of the K'un-lun south of Khotan and his published map. discrepancies already referred to above• and discussed in more detail in my supplementary note to Major Mason's paper (Johnson's snap and the topography of the K'un.lun south of Khotan, Alpine Journal, November, 1921, vol. xxxrv, p. 62). ' Notwithstanding the serious defects of the map, I believe a certain agreement can be recognized between Johnson's map and the topographical data
furnished by our surveys as regards some essential features of the ground traversed by him from the Yacgi-dawin to Karangbu-täuh. Starting from the Tangi-dawin his route lay c own the headwaters of a considerable stream draining eastwards into 'the • Ynrnng-kiislh. Its valley manifestly corresponds to the one which in Section I. h of the photo-theodolite panorama taken from the Tape ridge above Karanghqtigh (Sheet No. 9. It. 4, lat. 36° 9', long. '79° 53'; Mountain Panoramas, p. 12) is clearly seen separating the range above the'l'ur-ap-liusat glaciers from the more distant and higher southern main range.
For this valley I have adopted the name Chomsha-jilga which on my renewed visit to the Tape station in 1506 I beard applied by the less secretive of the Karanghn-tigh people with ns. But it may be noted that in 190t I heard this name in the form of Chomsh.jilga used for the much smaller and nearer valley which runs down to the left bank of the Ynrnng-kash just south of the Boinak-dawin then crossed on our way to the right bank of the river. It is seen to the left of this saddle in section I1. b of the photo-theodolite view from the Zilan ridge (Mountain Panoramas, p. 16). Considering that in 1906 we siebted from afar a well-marked track leading south-eastwards into the mountains past this little valley (see Desert Cathay, i. p. 209; Fig. 67). it is quite possible that the name in the former instance was used merely because the little valley in question lay on the way to the Chomsha-jika.
However this may be. we can see from Johnson's map that the route by which he ascended northward after leaving the previously mentioned stream at ' Khushlasb-langar' (i. e. Kc eblash-langar, 'the halting place at the confluence') and reached the ' Nain Rhin pass', must have taken him to some point on the northern snowy range trending eastwards from Peak 3/5.2 ar (23,071) and passing above the head of the Turgap-jilga. It is on this eastern continuation of the range, as seen in the Tape ridge panorama I. b near the last vertical cross-line on the right and again in the Zilan panorama II. b near the last vertical cross-line on the left, that I feel inclined to look