for the mountains westwards. But the summer floods in the K'un-lun
Survey towards Kish. s would ld not allow the valuable convoy of antiques to be started at
gar R. headwaters. y y an q
once towards the Kara-koram and Leh. I was therefore able to let Lal Singh to whose care I had to entrust it, set out meanwhile with me for a survey of the high snowy mountain chain which continues the Muz-tagh-atà range to the headwaters of the Kashgar river south-east of the Alai. We separated at Opal whence Lai Singh made his way round the northern end of that chain to the great Pamir-like valley of Môji bordering the watershed towards the Great Kara-kul and Rang-kul Lakes on the Russian Pamirs. s9 By descending this valley to below Kun-tigmaz he connected his survey with the work effected in 1900 from the Muz-tàgh-ata side and thus practically completed our mapping along the Chinese portion of the Pamirs. Crossing thence the high Ulirgh-art pass, flanked by a magnificent glacier, he rejoined me for final instructions at the mountain camp of Bostan-arche 99 where much urgent writing work had detained me before my start from Chinese soil.
The short journey which carried me thence to the Russian Pamir frontier below .the Kizil-art pass, lay mostly along Lad Singh's recent route and offered no Return of fs surveyors opportunity for fresh topographical work. Lal Singh himself after
to taking charge of the big convoy of antiques at Kashgar, was obliged to
proceed with it to Yarkand and thence to follow the usual caravan route which leads to Ladak Vi Kök-yar. Beyond the latter place the ground had remained outside the area of our previous surveys. Plane-table work was therefore resumed here by Lal Singh and carried across the Tiznaf river headwaters and the Yangi-dawan to the uppermost Yarkand river and finally to the Indian frontier on the Kara-koram pass. 91
His constant personal supervision was needed to assure safe transit for the many loads of precious and often very fragile antiques on these marches, with their frequent river crossings and other risks, and the complete success with which this difficult task was carried through sufficiently explains why the survey work was here necessarily limited to what could be accomplished while keeping to the route line.
The survey operations of my third expedition thus completed had extended, as far as work in Chinese territory was concerned, over a period of exactly two
Extent of survey years. Though their duration was thus about four months shorter than
the corresponding period of my second journey yet the area covered by our surveys of 1913-15 was if anything even more extensive than before. This result was very largely due to the indefatigable energy displayed by R.B. Lal Singh.
It was hence a special satisfaction to me to see his services to geography on this expedition duly recognized by the award of the Cuthbert Peek Grant
Recognition of snr. of the Royal Geographical Society in 1916, and those he had rendered
veyors' services. y b p y
to the Survey of India during 37 years of work in fields as widely apart as Arabia, Persia, the Indian N.W. Frontier, Tibet and China, by the grant of a valuable Jagir which the Government of India bestowed upon him on his retirement in 1919. The equally zealous help I had received from Afraz-gul Khan and the special aptitude for topographical work which he had proved on this journey, led to his appointment in 1918 as Sub-Assistant Superintendent in the Survey of India and received due acknowledgment also by the bestowal in 1917 of the Macgregor Silver Medal for Military Surveyors.