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0109 Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1
Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1 / Page 109 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000215
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Chap. IV]   NOTES ON

SHEET No. 30   87

somewhat in excess of the true ones. This easterly shift increases from about 1 minute in the case of the Toghrak-chap base stations to about 5' 10" in that of Peak 1/75 E (13,170 ; D. 2), the easternmost of the triangulated points. For the correct longitudes, see Appendix A ( Sheets 75 A, B, E, F ).

The longitude adopted for Charkhlik (88° 2' 10") is the mean between Dr. Hedin's value and that shown by R.B. Lal Singh's plane-table work (88° 1'). The longitudes adopted for Miran and Abdal are derived from traverses connected with triangulated points at the debouchure of the Miran river. The routes leading to the Lou-lan Site and Tikenlik are adjusted on the positions adopted for these places, and that along the southern shore of Lop-nor on the position of Kum-kuduk (see Sheet No. 32). Besides the latitude observations shown below, a number of others along the Tarim river were used from Dr. Hedin's work.

Descriptive accounts of the routes followed by me in 1906-07 and of the arch eologically important ground near Miran are given in Desert Cathay, i. pp. 343 sqq., 427

sqq., 438 sqq., 503 sqq.   The historical

topography of the Lop territory, which during the first centuries before and after Christ included also 'Lou-lan', has been fully discussed in Serindia, i. pp. 318 sqq. ; for that of the two small oases, Charkhlik and Miran, the only places of permanent occupation in modern times, cf. ibid. pp. 310 sqq., 326 sqq. 16

Both these small cultivated patches occupy ground where the wide gravel 'Sai' descending from the foot of the mountains meets the southern edge of the belt of desert vegetation which accompanies the Tarim river and its tributary, the Charchan-daryà. The junction of the two lies in the area marked by the lakes and marshes south of the fishing hamlet of Lop (A. 2). Apart from these two zones, the sheet shows in the north a dune-covered portion of the Lop desert, and in the north-east the western extremity of the great salt-encrusted bed of the dried-up Lop sea.

Corrections. A.3. Koyumal, Bashkoyumal should be printed red.

C.2. The latitude station symbol to be shown against Donglik (C. 142; C.2) and to be removed from Miran Fort (B. 2).

Astronomically observed latitudes.




1906-08 Donglik, Camp 142 (near spring; C. 2)




1913-15 Charkhlik, Camp 20 (Bog's house; N. of Bazar; A. 2)   ...


l' 35°

Toghrak-chap, Camp 22 (E. end of base, on E. bank of Nullah ;




B. 3)   ...




Camp 24, S. of Miran (on east bank of Miran river; B. 2)




Khunugu, Camp 27 (on east bank of river; D. 2) ...




Miran, Camp 63 (within hamlet; B. 2)





The surveys represented in this sheet lay partly along both slopes of the Tien-shan and partly in the westernmost portion of the Turfân basin (Pichan) and the desert plateaus to the east and south of it. With the exception of the high-road from Hâmi to Turfân followed in 1907, all the routes

surveyed belong to 1914-15.

For the work shown north of latitude

16 The early Chinese record discussed in he last quoted passage is of special geographical interest for the so called `Lop-nbr problem', as it conclusively proves that at the very period when the ancient Lou-lan territory in the north still received water from the Knruk-daryâ, there existed a terminal lake of the Tarim in a position corresponding to the present Lop•nôr, recto Kara-koshun marshes.

42° 30', the positions adopted for Turfan, Hâmi and Barkul served as base-points. In adjusting the traverses between them, use was made of the latitude observations shown below. The satisfactory character of the result is borne out by the close agreement with values astronomically determined by Dr. Vaillant in 1908 for two points on the Turfân-H ami high-road. 17 The small portion

11 See La déographie, 1921, xxxv. p. 499. Dr. Vaillant's chronometric longitude for Pichan (position !not recorded) is 90° 7', 4 against 90° 8' 30" of our Pichan Camp 265, the latitude also agreeing within less than a minute. At Ch`ü-ku-lou, Camp 261 (I). 2) the latitudes are also identical, while Dr. Vailiant's longitude (91° 52', 6) exceeds that shown on the map by only about 3 minutes.