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0110 Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1
Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1 / Page 110 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000215
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of R. B. Lai Singh's' route in the southwestern corner of the sheet is adjusted on .the positions of Âltmish-bulak, its starting point, and of Turfan.

This route at Donglik, near its northern end (A. 4), struck an old desert track from the terminal. basin of the Hami river, once used by hunters of wild camels before certain salt springs along it had completely dried up. A more northerly route which M. Muhammad Yakub surveyed from the same basin to Chik-tam (B-D. 3) has also become impracticable to traffic for the same reason.

Apart from these desert plateaus in the south, which in their utter barrenness fully share the character of the eastern Kuruktagh, there falls within this sheet the small portion of the Turfan basin around Pichan and Chik-tam. Like the rest of the cultivated area of the-basin these oases owe their irrigation almost exclusively to Kàrazes

Astronomically observed latitudes.

which catch the subsoil drainage from the elevated portion of the eastern Tien-shan. To the east of the meridian of Chik-tam the crest-line of the range falls considerably, and the moisture it receives is even on the nor there slope too scanty to permit of cultiva.. tion in more than a few small patches (see B-D. 1). • It is only to the west of that meridian that conifer forest is found on the northern face of the range, and a small village tract (Mu-li-ho, A. 1) with some grazing.

The southern slope of the range is far more barren still, and the passage of the Chinese highroad along its foot is made possible only by rare springs and wells and some scanty vegetation found in small basins (B-D. 2). The pass by which it crosses from Ch'i-ku-ching to the north of the range is low enough to be practicable for carts.

-1906-08. Tung-yen-tzu, Camp 262 (close to Chinese station; C. 2)




Pichan, Camp 265 (Beg's house above W. bank of river bed, cire. 1 mile from town; A. 3)




1913-15. Jam-bulak, Camp 236 (B. 1)   ...




Jeijan-kâréz, Camp 239 (village inn, 2 miles N.W. of Chik-tam post; B. 2)




Tügemen-tash, Camp 271 (in patch of scrub; A. 4)   ...





With the exception of the caravan track leading along the southern shore of the ancient salt-encrusted Lop sea bed which had been followed before in 1907, all the surveys shown in this sheet date from my third expedition. Those in the northern half of the sheet belong exclusively to R. B. Lad Singh's work of the winter of 1915, while most of those further south were carried out by Minn Afràz-gul and myself.

In the S.E. corner the position of Kumkuduk (D.4), on the caravan track from Charkhlik to Tun-huang, was fixed by adjusting the traverses on the positions adopted for An-hsi (see Sheet No. 38) and Mirk' (No. 30. B.2). The longitude thus derived, 91° 55' 30", was found to agree very closely with the one shown in Sheet No. 67 of the 1906-08 Map. For the correction of its .latitude the observations taken in 1914 on

18 It deserves to be noted that the two traverses .carried across exceptionally trying ground by R. B. 141 Singh and myself, respectively, differed at their

the route both west and east of Camp 95 could be utilized.

The traverses of the routes followed to Kum-kuduk from Âltmish-bulak and the ruins north-east of the Lou-lan Site (A.3), were adjusted on the positions adopted for the latter two points as well as on Kumkuduk. 18 The correction in longitude which the revised computation of R. B. Lal Singh's triangulation indicates for Âltmish-bulak and the Lou-lan Site, has been referred to in the Notes on Sheet No. 29. The traverse carried by R. B. Lal Singh from Yetimbulak (A.3) northward through wholly unexplored parts of the Kuruk-tagh was adjusted on the adopted positions of Altmishbulak and Deghar (in the Turfan depression; No. 28. D.4). A useful check was afforded by the series of latitude observations taken along this route (see below).

junction at Kum.kaduk, Carp 95, cviii, only by about 2 miles in longitude and 3 miles in latitude.