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Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1 
APPENDIX A. 109'
initial points are not excessive, considering the nature of the work, and they are all in the same. direction; nevertheless they are sufficient to throw out Rim Singh's work which was based on it on the Tighdumbash; and since this area is now rigorously triangulated and surveyed on the oneinch scale, Ram Singh's work is now superseded, and is not tabulated in the data here given.
(B)—IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF MUZTÀGHATÂ. AND THE LITTLE
KARAKUL, 190001 (RAM SINGH)
(Vide charts 42j, N, and o).
Ram Singh's work in this region is independent of his triangulation on the Tighdumbash, discussed above; but it is still dependent largely on Deasy's work.
The latter is based on observed latitudes and azimuths to Pk. 5/42K and Pk. 3/42o, of the Pamir Boundary Commission; these were proved to be accurately fixed within a very few seconds by the subsequent IndoRussian work. Small corrections of4 "•7 (latitude) and3"•3 (longitude) have since been applied to the Boundary Commission work to bring it into the terms of the IndoRussian, but Deasy's observations are not sufficiently precise to warrant the application of this small correction.
Ram Singh's work from camp 9, in this area, was based almost entirely on resection:
was fixed from Pks. 14 and 21/42o, and Pk. 14/42N (Deasy).
do. Pks. 1 and 14/42o (Deasy) and Pk. 3/42o (Boundary Commission).
do. "A" h. s., "B" h. s. and Pk. 3/42x, which latter was fixed from
"A" and "B".
do. "A" , "B", and "C" h. s.
Camp 9 (1o. "C" , "D" h. s. and Pk. 5/42N, which latter was fixed from
"C" and "D".
Checks were available at camp 9, and the latitude as derived above was 17 seconds greater than the astronomical value. At the same camp, a longitude cheek was afforded by an azimuth to the Pamir Boundary Commission value of Muztaghati. The longitude value derived by the check was 35 seconds less than that found by the previous computations.
The heights of these stations were not very satisfactory ; that of A' h. s. is derived from the observations to Pk. 14/42N and Pk. 21/420, the mean of the two values 35,155 and 15,011 feet being accepted, though it would perhaps have been better to give less weight to the latter, as the peak is very distant. The height of ` B ' h. s. was also derived from the mean of two observations and that of C' and E' obtained from A' and B'.
The height of camp 9, near Little Karakul, was from the mean of those derived from ` C ' h. s., ` D ' h. s. and the Pamir Commission value of Muztaghate, viz., 11,054, 11,0] 4, and 11,04], which also agree very well, considering the nature of the work. The height, (25,196), of Pk. 4/42N, (Kongur I), is derived from the mean of two observations from A' h. s. and ` D' h. s., differing by 135 feet.
In view of the above considerations, and owing to Deasy's work being well based in this area, Ram Singh's triangulation is accurate for exploration work, and more so than on the Taghdumbash ; inter se the work is accordant, and the error in position is probably less than half a mile from Survey of India terms.
(C)—TASHMALIK, " E " H. S., 190001 (RAM SINGH)
(Vide charts 42m and N).
This station was fixed by resection from Pks. 2 and 3/42x, previously observed by Deasy from Kishgar, and Pk. 4/42x, (Kongur I) of Rim Singh's earlier work. By the latter observation alone, it is very weakly connected to his triangulation in the Little Karakul area.
Deasy's fixings of Pks. 2 and 3/42N are not very good, being based on an observed latitude and a chronometric longitude at Kâshgar. Only one of his chronometers was working fairly satisfactorily and from a comparison with Sir F. De Filippi's careful observations for latitude and longitude at Kashgar in 1914, it is probable that his position, though fairly

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