72 HISTORICAL NOTICES OF KASHGAR [Chap. III
Marco Polo, when passing here on his way to China (circ. 1273-1274 A. D.), notes of ` Cascar' that `there are in the country many Nestorian Christians, who have churches of their own '. In Yarkand, too, he found Nestorian and Jacobite Christians 60.
Whether the establishment of a Nestorian archbishopric at Kashgar was a result of that new wave of conversion, as Sir Henry Yule has aptly styled it b1, which set in after the eleventh century, with the christianization of large numbers among the Turkish and Mongolian tribes, we do not know. But if any conclusion may be drawn from the recent discovery of Nestorian cemeteries at Tokmak and Pishpek west of Lake Issik-Kul, with tombstones dating from 858 to 133952, it seems probable that Kashgar also had its Nestorian community long before its elevation to a Metropolitan see ; for close political relations, as we have seen already, connected Kashgar with the region around Tokmak both during the time of the Chinese protectorate, and again in the tenth and eleventh centuries, under the predominance of the Karluk Khans of Balasaghûn 63.
sees dating from about 1349 A.D., Kashgar figures under the
name of Kashimghar. The earlier list given by Elias,
Metropolitan of Damascus (893 A.D.), does not contain Kashgar, though duly mentioning the see of Samarkand (under the name of Kand, which manifestly is a form of the old name of Sogdiana, rendered by the Chinese as Kang). This, as we know from other Syriac records, was established in the first quarter of the eighth century at the latest (Yule,
Cathay, i. p. xc).
6' See Yule, Marco Polo, i. pp. 182, 187.
61 See Yule, Cathay, i. pp. xcvii sq.
See the notes of M. Bonin, Journal asiat., Mai-Juin, 1900, p. 587, referring to an article of Deveria in the Journal asiat., 1896, which is not accessible to me at present. "3 Compare above, pp. 6o, 65.