268 THE RUINS OF DANDAN-UILIQ [Chap. IX
attached to the translation which Mr. Macartney had made in 1898 of the document A and which he then kindly communicated to me, Sun Ssti-yeh had identified five of the ` Six Cities ' as corresponding to the present Ilchi or Khotan, Yurung-kâsh, Kara-kash, Chira, Keriya, including Lo-lasung, a place of doubtful identity, as the sixth. Mr. Macartney himself referred to a remark in Sir Douglas Forsyth's Mission Report which mentions 'Alty Shahri Khutan ' as a designation of the territory of Khotan, and supposes it to be derived ` from the six towns composing it viz. the five above mentioned and Niya 9. The passage quoted by M. Chavannes from the Hsi yü f`u chih, a modern Chinese account, fully bears out these statements but gives Thakkaga as the name of the sixth place, possibly meaning thereby Tawakkél, since it is located near the confluence of the Kara-kâsh and Yurung-kâsh. Finally, M. Chavannes has clearly demonstrated that the use of such a term as the ` Six Cities ' of our documents is reflected by the references made in the Tang Annals to the five districts or towns dependent on Yü-t`ien 10.
M. Chavannes' translation of D. v. 6 clearly shows that the document was a petition addressed to a civil officer of Li-hsieh, and taken down by a scribe from the complainant's oral deposition. It seems, hence, only reasonable to assume that the large dwelling (D. y) in which it was found was the residence, permanent or temporary, of that official. The conclusion would, of course, become greatly strengthened if it were possible to prove that the documents A, B, C, which Badruddin had received from Turdi and transmitted to Mr. Macartney in 1898, had actually been found in the same ruin. In the absence of definite evidence on this point we may note that the parallel presented by the Chinese documents from D. vii distinctly supports this presumption. In the considerable series of papers brought to light there, all that are still more or less complete bear direct proof in their contents of having been either addressed to, or received by, monks of a Buddhist religious establishment. At the same time unmistakable archaeological indications show that the ruined structure in which I found them had been inhabited by monks.
Leaving the historical conclusions to be drawn from the Chinese documents of Dandân-Uiliq for discussion below, I turn now to the other finds yielded by D. v. First among them may be mentioned another Chinese record, D. v. 5 (Plate CVI), not written on paper but on a stick of tamarisk wood, close on 132 inches long, with a width of a little over 1 inch. One side of the stick is flat, having evidently been prepared by splitting and subsequent smoothing. On this there remain very faint traces of about a dozen Chinese characters written in ink, but badly faded. Dr. Bushell, who kindly examined the object, found none of them any longer legible. The reverse, which has been partly left in its original round form and partly roughly flattened by chipping, shows on the latter portion a single column of large Chinese characters seemingly in two handwritings. Dr. Bushell interprets them as referring to the weight of a quantity of Ch`ing, amounting to one tan and one fou (the fou being the tenth of a tan) ', and notes : ` The total weight would be roughly a man's burden, which makes me think that the three characters in the middle f~7p RI' ` might be a man's name, if not the foreign (non-Chinese) name of the Ch'ing. Ch'ing is " green " or " blue "; but whether indigo, lapis lazuli, or some other commoner colouring material is meant I am not prepared to guess ' 11.
9 See Yarkand Mission Report, p. 33.
10 Comp. his note 5 on Document A in Appendix A.
11 [' Sur la face bombée de ce morceau de bois, on lit les
mots: — ; A 0) If-, qui me paraissent
désigner une quantité de grain vert exprimée en mesures de capacité par les mots : " un che, un teou et cinq (?) cheng ",•—