209, 500; eastern element in Khotan art, 165. See also Gandhâra, GraecoBuddhist art.
population: number, 136 sq.; Khotan, protected against ethnic invasions, 137 sq. ; effects of the Muhammadan conquest, 138 ; Chinese accounts of the Khotanese, 139 ; Marco Polo's account, 139 sq. ; character and morals, 141 sq. ; position of women, 139, 142, 170; physical characteristics, 143 sq.; racial affinities, 144 sq.; linguistic evidence of connexion with the Galchas, 145 ; Turki element in the population of K., 146 ; Tibetan admixture, 147 sq.; alleged immigration from China, 149, 157 sq. ; linguistic traces of Tibetan connexion, 149 sq. ; racial traces of Indian and Chinese immigration, 165.
religion : introduction of Buddhism, 164, 231, 232 ; accounts of Buddhism in Khotan, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 179 ; disappearance of Buddhism, 180, 182 ; Zoroastrian religion in Khotan, 71, 172 ; introduction of Islam, 119, 121, 138, 181 ; Ziarats on old Buddhist sites, 121, 140 n. ; Islam in modern Khotan,
140. See also Buddhism, Islam,
oasis : its geographical features, 123 sq. ; rivers, 124, 171 ; irrigation, 126 ; agriculture, 130 ; administrative divisions, 131; industrial importance, 132 ; export of jade, 132 sq. ; silk, cotton, and wool industries, 133 sq. ; manufacture of paper, 134 sq. ; industries in pottery, glass, and metal, 135 ; gold production, 136 ; ancient sites, 185 sqq. ; introduction of silkworms, 229 sq.
Khotan, town of, also called Ilchi, 137, 522 n. ; Marco Polo's account, 139 ; legend of its foundation, 157, 159 ; called the ` Western City ' in Chinese Annals, 166 n. ; and ` city of the Western mountains', 167 n., 170, 17 2 ; captured by Yüsuf Qadr Khan, 181 ; antiques acquired at Khotan town, 218 sqq. ; Khotan, one of the ` Six Cities ', 268, 52211.
Khotana, Prâkrit name of Khotan, 154, 367 ; mentioned in Kharosthi document, 326. See Khotan.
Khushbél Peak, survey station, 22. Khushlashlangar, 129 n.
Ki-leâng, town of Khotan, 522 n. K`ia-cha, see Chia-sha.
Kia-che, 66. See Chia-shih.
kichik, ` shepherd station,' 420. Kichik-Debe, ` the Little Mound,' near Kashgar, 78.
Kien, district, 67 n.
kien-tchong, see Chien-chung. Kien-ying, see Ch'ien-ying.
K`ieou-tseu (Ch`iu-tzü), see Kucha. Kighillik, ` the dunghill,' at Ak-sipil,
kilamudra, designation of double wedge-
tablets, 365, 368.
Kilik Pass, ease with which it can be
crossed, 21 ; meeting of ethnic areas
Kin, district, 67 n.
`King's New Monastery ' described by
Fa-hsien, 194 n., 224.
Kirghiz, in Kashgar, 147.
Kisanganga Valley, routes into, 1 ; the
Dards of, 3.
kitchen, see cook-room.
K'iu-cha, see Ch'ia-sha.
K`ivan-yu-mo (Sarikol), identified with
Wu-ch`a, 42 n., 43 n. See also
Kiz-kurghan, ` the tower of the daughter (or princess),' xv, 35.
Kizil, oasis, 86.
Kizil-Debe, old site, near Khan-arik, 86. Kizil-Debe (` the Red Mound '), ruined
Stupa, near Kashgar, 77 sq. Kizil-dum, dunes near Keriya river,
Kizil-Tam (` the red wall '), fragments of pottery at, I16.
Kizillik, the ` Red (sands)', dunes near Endere river, 42o.
KLEMENTZ, M. D., gives specimen of forged MS., 511.
knot-dyed fabric (E. i. 029), 430, 442. knuckle-bones, sheep's (N. xv. oor. j), 374, 411•
K`o-koan-t`an, K`o-to-t`o, 27. See Sarikol. K`o-p`an-t`o, 43 n. See Sarikol. Ko-shih-ha-li, Chinese transcription of
Kashgar, 48 n.
Kobza-giram-shah, 458. Kobza-girem-shahr, 458 n. Kochkar-Ôghil, grazing-ground, 31o. KOHITSU, Mr. Rionin, arranges Chinese
documents from Niya Site, 370 n.
Kohmari (Komari), etymology of the
name, 190 ; Hill of K., see Gosriiga. Kök-yar, see Tzû-ho.
Kokcha Valley or Yamgan (Yin-pochien), 3I n.
Koko-Nor, see Kuk Naur.
Kokul-toghrak, grazing-ground, 420. Komari, see Kohmari.
Komedi, mountain district, identified with the Chü-mi-t`o of Hsüan•tsang and the ` land of the Kumedh', 54 ; the Chü-mi-chih of Wu-k`ung, 64.
kdne-shahr, ` ancient city,' supposed, at Hasa-Tam, 79 ; north of Niya, 310 ; term applied to old remains of any kind, 450; formation of, 459.
Könsamöma, a demon, 454 n. ; Ak-taz, spoken of as his town, 454.
Körgach, on the Endere river, 443. Kösa, village, 233.
Kosh-Langar, ruin near, 99.
kolh, Skr. kolta, castle, 2.
Kou, see Ku.
Kou-che-mi, see Kashmir.
Kouo Hin, see Kuo Hsin.
Koutcha, see Kucha.
Ku, town of Khotan, 522 n.
Ku-shih-mi, Chinese name of Kashmir, see Kashmir.
kuan, ` frontier pass, guard-house,' 98. Kuan-shih, in Chinese inscription, 309. Kuang-tê, king of Khotan, 167, 168. Kubera, the god of wealth, worship of,
158 ; statue in the Lahore Museum,
ib. n., 208 ; at Dandan-Uiliq, 253 ;
at Rawak Vihara, 494. See also
Kucha (Ch`iu-tzû), the Protectorate of An-hsi established here, 8, 6o ; included in the ` Four Garrisons ', ib., 534 ; visited by Wu-kung, 64, 536 ; political relations with Khotan, 450 ; identified with Ngan-si, 534 ; isolated, through Tibetan conquest, 536 ; mentioned in N. xv. 93. a, b, 371, 537 ; under the Tsin dynasty, 544.
Kuei, king of Khotan, 176.
KujulaKaraKadphises, coin of, 205, 575. Kuk Naur (i.e. Koko-Nor), lake, 449 n. kul, a marshy depression, 192.
Kul-langar (` the rest-house by the tank '), old site, 116.
Kum-Chaklik, grazing-ground, 444.
Kum-i-Shahidan, Muhammadan shrine, near Aiding-Kul, 226 ; identified with the site of Lu-shê convent, 23o.
Kum-rabâl-Pâdshâhim, ' My Lord of the Sands Station,' popularly named Kaplar-Mazdr, I 19 ; legend of the pigeons, ib. ; a survival of Hsüantsang's legend of the sacred rats, 120, 12 I ; red clayey soil near, 468 n.
Kumârajiva, Indian Pilgrim, calls Kash-gar Sha-lê, 48 ; his account of Buddha's alms-bowl at Kâshgar, 67, 68; taken prisoner at Kara-shahr, 544 n.
Kumaralabdha (T'ung-shou), carried off from Taksaila, 37.
Kumat, jade pits, 472.
Kumédh, see Komedi.
Kumuchakar, village, 515.
kumush (a coarse grass), 239, 418, 443, 444, 474 ; as building material, 454,
Kun-lun range, Ptolemy's Kaauc 6' ph 5o; explorations in, 124.
Kunala, son of Moka, at Taxila, 164. See also Moka.
Kung-yueh, tribe, rebels against the Chinese, 175.
Kuhgeya, name, mentioned in Kharosthi document (N. iv. 136), 326.
Kuo Hsin, governor of the ` Four Garrisons ', 64, 533 sqq.
Kuran or Zebak (Ch`ü-lang-na), 31 n. Kurghcin, ` fort,' 73 n.
Ku;ana dynasty, in north-western India,