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0106 Ancient Khotan : vol.1
Ancient Khotan : vol.1 / Page 106 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000182
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Titles of royal family.

Historical references to Käshgar.


aussi s lui compriment la tête pour qu'elle prenne une forme aplanie. Ces gens se tatouent le corps ; ils ont l'iris des yeux verdâtre. Le roi a pour nom de famille Pd; il se surnomme lui-même A-mo-tclze ; il réside dans la ville de Kia-che ; les Tou-kiue lui ont donné en mariage une de leurs filles. Il a deux mille soldats d'élite. (Ce pays) a coutume de sacrifier au dieu céleste.'

The description here given of the country of Kâshgar and its people is substantially the

same as that found in Hsüan-tsang's Hsi yii-chi, of which it is a manifest abstract. The name

of the ruling family (Pd    ), which the concluding portion of the notice records, is actually
found in the Imperial decree reproduced by M. Chavannes, which in 728 A.D. conferred the royal title on An-chih, chief of Su-164. It was borne also by the high Kâshgar dignitary Fei Kuo-Liang, who in 753 A. D. came to pay homage at the Imperial court 6. The title A-mo-chih

A is similarly attested by the royal decree already referred to, and was undoubtedly

shared. by the rulers of Khotan during the eighth century. We find it not only in a record of the encyclopaedia Ts`ê fu yuan kuei relating to the investiture of Wei-chtih Fu-chih ` qui avait les titres de A-mo-tche de Yu-t`ien', as king of Khotan in 728 A. D. 8, but also in an official Chinese document dating from the year 768 A. D., which was excavated at Dandân-Uiliq, and which will be discussed below 7.

The name of the capital Kia-che (Chia-shih, b p   ), which I am unable to trace elsewhere,

is, notwithstanding its different spelling, manifestly connected with the name Kâshgar (Ch`ia-sha). The king to whom the Turks are said to have given a princess in marriage, and whose name is not specified, may be supposed to have been the prince actually reigning at the time of the Chinese annexation. The estimate of the number of his armed force is the same as that recorded in the Han notice on Su-lé, while in the mention of the worship of the ` god of heaven ' we must, according to M. Chavannes, recognize a reference to the Zoroastrian cult 8.

The general description of Su-lé is followed by brief references to the embassies from this

kingdom in the years 635 and 639 A.D., which we have already had occasion to mention. From M. Chavannes' extracts from the encyclopaedia Ts`é fu yuan kuei we learn that in 698 A. D. (after the recovery of the ` Four Garrisons ' from the Tibetans) Fei Yi-chien, king of Su-lé, sent a mission to the Imperial court to offer his tribute 8. About the year 705 we find mention of a palisaded camp in the territory of Su-lé, to which Kuo Yüan-chên, Protector of An-hsi, retired for safety from the attacks of rebel Tu-chüeh tribes 10. In 728 A. D. Fei An-chih, who already had the title of A-mo-chih of Su-lé, received his investiture as king of Su-lé by an Imperial brevet, the text of which is preserved among the diplomatic documents of the Ts`é fu yuan kuei n. A notice of the Tang shu relating to the Turgäsh tribes of the T`u-chüeh shows us, in 739 A. D., the governor of the Chinese garrison of Su-lé forcibly interfering in their affairs as far as Talas (Auliata)12. In 753 A. D., soon after Wu-kung, on his way to Gandhâra, had passed through Kâshgar, we hear of certain high dignitaries from Su-1ê presenting their homage at the Imperial court 18. After this date specific references to Kâshgar in the Tang Annals cease.

8 The Annals previously record this custom as prevailing among the people of Kuchä.

  • See Turcs occid., p. 208.

  • See ibid., p. 122 ; Chavannes, Notes addit. sur les Turcs occid., p. 85.

6 See Turcs occid., p. 207.

T See below chap. ix. sec. v.; also App. A.

8 See Turcs occid., p. 121, note 4 ; p. 135, note Journal asiat., 1897, Jan-Févr., pp. 6o sq.

9 See Notes addit. sur les Turcs occid., p. 25.

10 Turcs occid., p. 189.

" See ibid., pp. 122 (where the name of the ruler is given as An-ting), 208 ; Notes addit. sur les Turcs occid., p. 48.

19 See Turcs occid., p. 84.

19 Compare Chavannes, Notes addit., pp. 85 sq.; Turcs occid., p. 122. Two of the dignitaries, Fei Kuo-liang and A-man-êrh-ho chü pi-shih, are designated as in charge of the