168 HISTORICAL NOTICES OF KHOTAN [Chap. VII
acknowledged his sovereignty. Khotan and Shan-shan (about Lop-Nor) are described as the two territories which then formed the keys to the southern route leading to China.
Kuang-tê was on the throne of Khotan when Pan Chao, in 73 A.D., as generalissimo of the imperial forces commenced his great conquests westwards. The rulers of Shan-shan and some other states had already submitted, but Kuang-tê, encouraged by the Hsiung-nu, who had sent one of their commanders to So-ch`ê, hesitated to tender his allegiance. The execution of some emissaries whom he sent to Pan Chao with an insolent demand, and the submission of Shan-shan, however, quickly removed all thought of resistance. Kuang-tê himself attacked and killed the Hsiung-nu general and made his submission to Pan Chao. A Chinese garrison was established in his states 12.
Various notices in the Later Han Annals make it clear that Chinese power .in the Tarim Basin was slowly but steadily waning during the second century of our era. The efforts of Pan Yung, Pan Ch`ao's son, seem at first to have prevented a break-up. His victory over Yen-ch`i (Kara-shahr), 127 A.D., made Khotan, like the other states of Eastern Turkestan, renew its allegiance 13. In 129 A.D. Fang-clfien, king of Yü-t`ien, killed the ruler of Chü-mi (Yü-mi) and gave the territory to his own son. Two years later he sent a tribute-bearing embassy to the imperial court, which had demanded the retrocession of Chü-mi 14.
Events recorded for the years 151-152 A.D. afford us a glimpse of the modest limits within which Chinese control was maintained at Yü-t`ien. When the governor-general Chao Ping, representing the imperial authority, had died there, Ch`êng-kuo, the chief of Chü-mi, endeavoured to create trouble for Chien, king of Khotan, by a report that the Chinese representative had been poisoned by the royal physicians. Wang Ching, who was sent to succeed in command at Yü-t`ien, was induced by the same intriguing chief to make a treacherous attack upon Chien, in the 'course of which the latter was killed. In the rising which followed, the people of Khotan, under the leadership of the local governor Shu-p`o, revenged the death of their king by killing the Chinese commander, together with his guards. Shu-p`o then endeavoured to secure the crown, but was himself killed, while An-kuo, the son of Chien, succeeded to the Khotan throne. Ma Ta, the governor of Tun-huang or Sha-chou, who had been privy to Wang Ching's highhanded proceedings, then prepared to punish Yü-t`ien for its resistance, but the emperor Huan ti prohibited the attempt, and the governor of Tun-huang had to rest content with a
fictitious satisfaction. The self-confidence of the people of Khotan is said to have been
greatly strengthened thereby 15. Under the last reign of the Later Han dynasty, that of Hsien ti, embassies from Khotan are mentioned in the years 202 and 220 A. D. 16
During the epoch of the Three Kingdoms (220-264 A.D.) Yü-t`ien appears to have been under a powerful ruler, for the Annals mention the states of Jung-lu, Yü-mi, and Su-16 as dependent on it. Nevertheless we hear of an embassy to the imperial court in 222 A. D. lr, and it is evident from the Chinese documents found at the Niya Site, which belong either to the closing years of this epoch or the very commencement of the Tsin period, that Chinese influence must have asserted itself in one form or another even after the downfall of the Hans.
During the period of the Tsin dynasties (265-419 A.D.) Chinese power can only have made itself felt in Eastern Turkestan spasmodically. It is true that we have among the Chinese
14 See Rémusat, loc. cit., pp. 4 sq.
13 Compare Franke, Zur Kenntniss der pp. 7o sq.
14 See Rémusat, loc. cit., p. 6.
1$ See Rémusat, loc. cit., pp. 6 sqq. 1a Comp. Rémusat, loc. cit., p. 9.
Rémusat, loc. cit., p. Io. This is probably the same
TürkvYlker, embassy to which the Pien i lien's extract from the Liang
Annals refers as having been sent in the reign of Wen ti (220-226 A.D.). The king of Khotan is there named Shan-hsi;, see Rémusat, loc. cit., p. 17.