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0289 Ancient Khotan : vol.1
Ancient Khotan : vol.1 / Page 289 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000182
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transcriptions Tsar-ma in Tibetan and Tsan-mo in Chinese clearly pre-suppose as their original. Can the mound of Chalma-kazan have derived its name, literally meaning the ` pot of Chalma', from the designation once borne by the chief object of worship at *Charma, the ` Stutpa of the inverted 5âtra' ? The word kazân, however common in its ordinary use, is not known to me as forming the second part in any local name of Turkestan, a circumstance which, in view of the great uniformity observed in Turk' local nomenclature, makes its use here as a component part all the more curious.

I do not know how, if the old site of Chalma-kazan really marks the position of Vairocana's shrine, we should have to account for the distance of io li noted by Hsüan-tsang. But it may be useful to point out that the pilgrim's estimate of distance for Mount Gogrnga supplies an unquestioned instance of similar error on the same ground. Hsüan-tsang places Mount Go§rtiga 20 li or about 4 miles to the south-west of the Khotan capital. Here, too, we have a correct bearing ; but the distance is very considerably underestimated, since, as a look at the map shows, the hill of Kohmari, whose identity with Mount Gogrnga has been definitely established, lies fully I I miles from Yatkan 47.


  1.  Square stone button of serpentine. Carved on the obverse, a 4-petalled flower within a simple fillet border. Reverse, formed into a very flat truncated 4-sided pyramid, near apex of which two holes are drilled from opposite sides in a slightly downward direction meeting on the line of the axis, and giving a means by which the button may be sewn to anything. 4" square. Thickness â". See Plate LI.

  2.  a. Fragment of fine terra-cotta vessel; rim. Extremely rich in colour, surface fretted. Upon upper curve of rim an ornamental border consisting of roundels close together, an incised line running round beneath them. 1i" x é". See Plate LII.


C. 002. b. Four fragments of glass, moulded, of greenish and pinkish tints. See Plate LII.

C. 002. c. Two fragments of flint. Perhaps from the glass-maker's workshop where such flint was probably used. See Plate LII.

C. 004. Fragment of grotesque face, showing about â of nose, portion of mouth and strongly recurving moustache (cf. Y. oo18, B. oo1. a). The nose is much exaggerated in length, but otherwise well modelled. Face evidently made in a mould, and seems to be surfaced with a finer clay than the inner substance. Height I*" x I". See Plate XLIV.

" This discrepancy has been duly noted by M. Grenard, Mission D. de Rhins, iii. p. 143.