369 ; Kharosthi inscription of K. period, ib.
Kusanasena, name, in Kharosthi documents, 365 n., 366.
Kustana, ' breast of the earth,' Sanskrit name of Khotan, a ' popular etymology', 153 sq., 157, 367. See also
Kustana, king of, defeated by the Chi-
Kustana, son of Moka, in the Tibetan
legend of Khotan, 160, 161, 584. See also Moka.
Lachin-ata, Mazar of, 457, 464. lacquered bowls (D. V. 9), 272, 297;
(N. xv. oor. a). 373, 410.
Ladak, wrongly identified with Great
P`o lü, 5 n.
Laisu, oasis, 468.
Lan, town, 436 n., 522 n. ; identified
with Ni-jang, ib.
Land of the Women ', mentioned in the Pei shih, 171.
Langar, or roadside Sarai, at Kara-dong,
Lapouge's Homo Alpinus, represented
by the Galchas, 144 ; by the people of Khotan, 145 sq.
lead, crescent-shaped ornament (M. 001. h), found at Togujai, 113, Leang-tcheou, see Liang-chou.
leather, ancient documents on : (Niya
Site), 338, 34o, 342, 344 sqq-, 401, 403 sqq.; how folded and closed,
345 sq. ; how sealed and addressed,
346 ; leather as writing material,
347 ; used in Kashmir for binding Sanskrit MSS., ib. ; (?) piece of scale
armour (N. xv. 005), xvi, 374, 411. legends, of sacred pigeons, 1 r 9 ; of
sacred rats, ib. sq., 264 sq. ; of origin of Khotan, 156 sq. ; of GoSrnga, r 86, 189 ; of Somiya mound, 224 sq. ; of the Nagini of the drum-lake ', 227 sq. ; of the Lu-shê convent and the introduction of sericulture into Kho-
tan, 229, 259 ; of the introduction of Buddhism, 23x; of Uzun-Tati, 46o;
of Ulugh-Ziarat, 463.
lekhahâraka, ' letter-carrier,' 366.
lekhavacilu, ' letter-reader,' 368 n.
Livi, Prof. Sylvain, on Chinese name of Kashgar, 49 ; on connexion of Kash-gar with Khasa, 51 n. ; on Chinese names of Khotan, 153 sq. ; on identity of Mounts Gosrnga and Gosirsa, 186 ; on the name Kohmari, 190.
Li, the characters of, invented by Vairocana, 232.
le; Chinese road measure, 32, 233, 235. Li-hsieh, mentioned in Chinese docu-
ments, 266, 267, 268, 521 sqq. ; identified with Dandan-Uiliq, 267.
Li-kuei, in Later Han Annals, 167 ; (?) connected with Li yul, ib. n.
Li Pi, Chinese statesman, 535.
Li Shêng-t'ien, king of Khotan, x78 sqq. Li Shih-san (Li Che-san), mentioned in
Chinese document (E. i. 36. a), 546. Li-sie, see Li-hsieh.
Li Yüan-chung, governor of Pei-t`ing, 64, 534.
Li yul, ' country of Li,' Tibetan name of Khotan, 155. ' The Annals of Li-yul,' translated by Mr. Rockhill, 152. See also Khotan.
Liang-chou, commanderies dependent on, 371, 538.
Lien Ch'i, Chinese official, 529. Lien-yün, fortress, held by Tibetans, 8 ;
now Sarhad, ib. ; captured by Chi-
lihilaka, ' letter,' 368.
Limira, name, in Kharosthi documents, 366.
Lipeya, Sothamga, an official, mentioned in Kharosthi documents, 326, 351, 366.
Little Vehicle ', see Hinayana.
Liu-ch`êng, ' Six Cities,' 267. See ' Six Cities'.
Liu-la, a misreading of Su-lê, 48 n. livistarena anadilekha, ' letters of in-
junction written at length,' 365. Lo-lasung, said to be one of the ' Six
Lo-pu-yen, officer, mentioned in Chinese
documents from Niya Site, 371, 538. Lo-ssû-wen, ambassador from Khotan
to China, 180.
loans, Chinese records of (D. VII. 2, 3) 4), 275, 276, 526 sqq.
local legends, continuity of, at UzunTati, 46o. See also legends.
local worship, continuance of, in Khotan, 12x sq. ; at Kohmari, 189 ; at Aiding-Kul, 228 ; at shrine of Kum-i-Shahidan, 23o ; (?) at the Burhanuddîn Mazar, 310 ; (?) at the Mazar of Imam Ja`far Sadiq, 313 sq. ; at UliighZiarat, 463.
L6czy, Prof. L. de, analysis of loess soil of Khotan, xiii, 75, 124, 127, 128 n., 588 sqq. ; of Yôtkan, 196 sqq., 588 sq. ; of drift-'sand' from DandanUiliq, 242, 590; from Ak-sipil, 589 sq.; from Niya Site, 59o.
loess (' adobe '), used for making bricks, 77, 8o; cast in moulds and stamped, 8o, 85 ; forms drift-' sand ', loo, 127 ; brought under cultivation, 104; eroded by winds, x o7 ; loess banks as ' witnesses', xo8 ; loess soil of Khotan, 124, 127 ; of Yôtkan, 198, 588 sq.; identity of loess at Yôtkan and at ancient desert sites, 199 ; used for building rampart of Endere fort, 434 ; and of Ak-sipil fort, 475.
Long Houei. See Lung Hui.
Lop, canton of Khotan. See Sampula. Lop, village, 468, 470.
Lop-Nor, route to Sha-chou, 183, 184 ; the ancient Na-fo-po or Lou-lan, 435 ; called Kuk Naur by Mirza Haidar, 44911-
lotus, grown in Khotan, 253 ; pedestal in form of, 246, 25o, 297, 422, 423, 497 ; represented in frescoes, 253, 273, 274, 333 ; on painted panel, 28o, 298 ; as vesica, on stucco relief, (R. ii. 2), 503 ; on chair (N. vii. 4), 334, 397 ; on stucco reliefs, (D. 1. ix o), 245, 29o; (D. rI), 292 sq.; (D. xII. 3, 5), 302 ; (D.T. 02), 245; (E. i.4014), 441•
Lou-lan, see Na-fo-po.
Lu-chan, see Vairocana.
Lu-shê convent, mentioned by Hstiantsang, 229 ; identified with Vihara of Ma-dza, 23o ; and with site of Kumi-Shahïdan,
Lung Hui (Long Houei), king of Yench'i, referred to in N. xv. 93 a, b, 537, 543•
Ma, female name, on Chinese documents, 527, 529.
Ma-dza, identification of, 23o.
Ma-hao-lai (Ma-lai-hi), king of Little Vo-lü, 7.
Ma-lai-hi, see Ma-hao-lai.
Ma Ling-chih, Chinese soldier, 275, 526 sq.
Ma Ta, governor of Tun-huang, 168.
MACARTNEY, Mr. G., C.I.E., help given by, vii, 47, 518; on finds of ancient pottery at Kurghan-Tim, 76; and Islam Akhûn, loo, 102 ; on the present official name of Khotan, 155 n. ; obtains Chinese documents, 266, 267 ; MSS. in cursive Brahmi, 27o ; on Chinese records on wood, 358.
Madhumati, old name of the Bandapor Nullah, 2.
Mass, Macedonian merchant, route to the Seres, 54.
mahanuava maharaja, title on Kharosthi tablets, 321, 325, 366.
Mahayana or ' Great Vehicle ', followed in Khotan, 56, 169, 174, 585 ; in Karghalik, 56, 90 ; predominant in convents of Chia-pi-shih, 57 ; in the tracts south of the Hindukush, g.; studied in Huo (Kunduz), ib. n. ; in Tzti-ho, 92_; Mahayana text found at Dandan-Uiliq, 257, 295 (Note i). Mabel) Khôjam', see Muhibb Khwaja. Mahmûd Karam Kabuli, legend of, 449, 463, 464.
mail, coat of, on stucco figure (DandanUiliq), 252.
Maitreya, picture of, 261.
Makuya, canton of Khotan, 131 n. sq. Malakalagan, village, 454.
Mamngaya, name, in Kharosthi documents, 366.