8 ACROSS SWAT AND DM [Chap. I
river has cut its way southwards through the mountains, are quite as great as those which confront the traveller along most of the Indus course between Childs and Skardo. Hence it is easy to recognize the pilgrim's references to the ladders or ` Rafiks ' connecting the narrow rock ledges which are used for the track, and to the rope bridges of birch twigs by which this is taken from one bank to the other.16 Fa-hsien's specific mention of the rope bridge which he crossed before reaching the territory of Udydna is confirmed by the map. This shows that the main track along the Indus crosses below Darel to the left bank and does not regain the right bank until Mirabat, some eight miles above the side valley of Kanda belonging to Swat.10
Fa-hsien's general account of Udydna is brief but shows in strong relief the flourishing state which Buddhism enjoyed at the time of his visit. ` The people all use the language of " Central India ", " Central India " being what we should call the " Middle Kingdom ". The food and clothes of the common people are the same as in that Central Kingdom. The Law of Buddha is very (flourishing) in Wu-ch`ang. They call the places where the monks stay (for a time) or reside permanently Sanghdrdmas ; and of these there are in all boo, the monks being all students of the Hinayana.' 17 The few sacred sites which Fa-hsien singles out for mention appear again in Hsiiantsang's account of Udydna. So long as the greater portion of Swat territory remains inaccessible for an archaeological survey, there can be no opportunity for a systematic treatment of its 1ojographia sacra. I shall, therefore, as in the case of the later pilgrims' accounts, be content to mention only those sites for the identification of which reliable evidence has already been given elsewhere.
This is fortunately the case with regard to the first sacred spot which Fa-hsien names, where Buddha coming to Udydna ` left a print of his foot, which is long or short according to the ideas of the beholder '.18 Hsüan-tsang too mentions the ` large flat stone with the Buddha's footprints, the size of which varied with the religious merit of the measurer '. He places it on the north bank of the Swat River and thirty li to the south-west of the spring of the Naga Apaldla, the reputed source of the river, and itself about 250 li to the north-east of Mêng-chieh-li or Manglaur.1° The latter indication, as first recognized by Colonel Deane, points clearly to the present head of the Swat
River near Kaldm,20 and it may be considered certain that the sacred spot is marked by the inscribed rock or boulder near the village of Tirath on the border of the Swat Kohistan. This shows
two largefâdukas, and below them a brief Kharosthi inscription in characters of the first century B. c.
describing them as the footprints of Buddha Sdkyamuni, of which Colonel Deane in 1897 secured paper impressions, subsequently edited by Professor Bühler.21 The position of Tirath, moreover, in
relation to Kaldm, as far as it is known from survey reconnaissances, corresponds accurately enough to Hsüan-tsang's description. It is in the same vicinity that ` the rock on which he (Buddha) dried his clothes' may be located with great probability ; for Hsüan-tsang places some ` 30 li farther down the river' from the site of the miraculous footprints ' the rock on which Buddha had washed
his robe, the lines of the robe being still distinct like carving
Fa-hsien's account of Udydna.
spots named by Fa-hsien.
'5 Cf. in Legge, Ff-hien, p. 26, note 2, the striking description of the Indus defiles about Rongdo quoted from Cunningham, Ladak, pp. 88 sq.
r0 This fact disposes of Legge's misgivings about the identity of To-li and Daré1, as expressed p. 24, note 2, of his translation.
" See Legge, Fdf--bien, p. 28.
" Legge, FB bien, p. 29.
" See Watters, Yuan Chwang, i. p. 231 ; Julien, .M moires, i. p. 135.
20 See Deane, Note on Udyana, J.R.A.S., 1896, p. 656.
21 See Anzeiger of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 1898, iv. pp. 12 sqq. The two impressions of the game stone which I con.municated on Colonel Deane's behalf, were taken by Professor Bühler to be those of two separate inscriptions, a misapprehension which that great scholar's sudden death very soon after the publication prevented from being promptly cleared up.
22 See Legge, Fd-hien, p. 29 ; Watters, Yuan Chwang, p. 231. It is possible that the rock-carving, evidently natural, to which the pilgrims allude, still exists; for among the paper estampages which had been brought to Colonel Deane