that the remains found here were those of an old Muhammadan cemetery resembling those I had examined more than,a year before near the Chatrhan River.' The most conspicuous among them was of a hall-like structure, about 19 feet square (Fig. 301), open to the south and built of rather porous bricks 18" x 6" x 4". In front of this structure, at a distance of about 19 feet, stretched a low wall, probably part of an enclosure otherwise decayed. Adjoining it was a small domed ruin 7 feet square inside, facing south, which communicated with the enclosure by a small arched openitlg only 4 feet high, and evidently had served as a porch. The clearing of the hall and enclosure brought to light only fragments of plaster with open-work ornament which seemed to have belonged to a screen.la
Its geometrical pattern plainly suggested Muhammadan origin, and this was soon confirmed by Old Mu-
the clearing of a smaller ruin situated about 160 yards to the south-east on what obviously was an hammadan
old tamarisk-cone. Here there emerged between broken walls of a narrow enclosure a low platform cemetery.
about 32 feet long, which obviously marked a Muslim grave. A wooden tablet, of the ` Takhti shape, about 18 inches long, turned up close to the platform and retained traces of Arabic writing. Another completely decayed structure about 30o yards west of the first proved to be that of a small Mazâr surrounded by graves in which the skeletons, partly exposed, were all laid in the orthodox Muhammadan fashion. The whole site had evidently served as a Muhammadan burial-ground, but not in recent times ; for the Toghrak beams and posts found at the ruins looked almost as withered and fissured as those I had found exposed at sites like Dandân-oilik or Kara-dong. A Yangi-hissâr shepherd acknowledged that he had seen one or two similar gumbaz further west in the desert. But as he could or would not indicate their exact position, and their character could not be in doubt, I refrained from a search for them.
From this point I marched up the Inchike-daryd on January 12, and then at the shepherd's hut Marches to
of Chong-tokai separated from R. B. Ld1 Singh. While he was to follow the previously unmapped K ha.and
river-course right through to Shahyar, I myself struck through the broad belt of unsurveyed desert north-westwards and, after covering by two forced marches the intervening distance of some.6o miles, reached the great northern caravan route at the oasis of Bugur: The ground traversed to this point, as shown in Map No. 42, offered no scope for antiquarian observations. It consisted in the south of alternating belts of drift-sand and of riverine jungle along the Charchak-darya, bed, while north of Kök-chöl followed a wide expanse of grazing and marshes in which the river of Bugur ter-
minates. Being anxious to reach Kuchd as soon as possible, I could spare no time for visiting old remains about Bugur. Nor do I propose to record here what the rapid examination en route of
certain obviously ancient watch-towers and ruined posts along the high road to Kucha, showed me. In 1915 I had occasion to survey in detail any old remains that could be traced along the KorlaKuchd road, which undoubtedly marks the line followed since Han times by the ' Northern route', the great highway for Chinese trade and military movements. It is hence in the report on my third
See above, pp. 305 sq.
'a The following list describes these fragments :
Gumbaz. Korla. ooi. Stucco relief fr. Part of open-work panel for applying to solid background. Within plain frame, design of contingent circles, joined by round-headed double rivets, and containing ` Maltese' crosses. Design peculiarly ' Coptic' in character. Clay mixed with fine hair; remains of white slip on face. 5" x 51" x ".
Gumbaz. Korla. 002. Stucco relief fr. of openwork panel; part of plain frame and design apparently of interlaced squares. Clay mixed with fine hair; remains of
white slip. 2q" X I4" X
Gumbaz. Korla. 003. Stucco relief fr. of openwork panel, with geometric design of intersecting straight lines, circles, etc., joined by round-headed rivets. Clay mixed with fine hair; remains of white slip. 31" X 21"
Gumbaz. Korla. 004. Stucco relief fr. of openwork panel with rectilinear design of interlacing hexagons within a plain frame; closely resembles much Coptic' work. Clay mixed with fine hairs; plentiful remains of white slip.
1" X In a
4 32 X~