1266 RUINED SITES EAST AND NORTH OF KHOTAN [Chap. XXX
Going west-north-west of this second Stûpa, two big ridges of sand rising to 50-60 feet had to be crossed before the structural remains reported were reached after about 11- miles amidst dunes rising to 15-20 feet. Wherever on the way small patches of bare ground were met, they were covered with old pottery débris. The same was the case on the open expanse of drift-sand reached after crossing those high ridges. To the west and south-west it extended unbroken, forming manifestly a part of that great ` Hanguya Tati ' which I had first visited in 1901 at the Stûpa of Arka-kuduk and subsequently struck again in 1906 on my way to the Ak-terek site.8 In one place the clay walls of a house eroded to within a foot or so of the ground could be traced. In two of its rooms there were fireplaces spared from the thickness of the wall to a depth of 2 feet, and apparently different in construction from those seen at Dandân-oilik, Khâdalik, and elsewhere. About 20 yards to the south a débris heap, about 40 feet in diameter, of charred wood and burned clay marked the site of what was probably a temple. It had obviously been destroyed by fire and its remains since frequently searched for ` treasure ', a wood-cutter's track passing close by.
My subsequent marches took me through the intensively cultivated village tracts of Hanguya and Sampula to Bizil (Map No. 28. A. I) on the right bank of the Yurung-kash where it issues from the mountains. On the way I was able to collect useful information about the elaborate system of canals which irrigate the Khotan cantons situated to the east of the Yurung-kash and now comprised in the separate lzsien of Lop.. But this is not the place to record it nor to detail the instructive observations made when inspecting, in the company of local Bags and Mirâbs, the work already started on the new canal which skirted the foot of the gravel glacis to the south and was ultimately to bring water to the ` Sai ' of Yailaghan.0 It must suffice to state that there was evidence on all sides of the steady increase which the area under cultivation in this important portion of the Khotan oasis had been undergoing during recent years, both by ` new land ' on the desert edge being brought under irrigation and by the reclamation of shôrluk, or salt-impregnated marshy ground, previously neglected within the old cultivated area. If these conditions should continue for some time, the careful record macle in ' our maps of the cultivation limits, wherever they could be accurately observed, may prove of great interest hereafter. It will help in gauging the range of the latest of those changes in the economic history of Khotan which for earlier periods archaeological research must assume, but cannot hope accurately to determine.
From Bizil I crossed to the west bank of the Yurung-kash in order to revisit the site of
Mount Go§rnga' and some remains reported in its neighbourhood. The march across the stony ` Sai ' separating here the two main rivers of Khotan was done in a raging sand-storm which made observation very difficult. But after crossing the Yurung-lash, then carrying water 1-1i feet deep over some 100 yards only of its mile-wide bed, we passed the head of the canals which irrigate the cantons on the left bank of the river, and then reached a débris-covered waste forming part of the ` Tati ' of Jamada. The latter had already been visited by me on my first journey,10 but was found now to have a continuation for about a mile further to the south-west.
To this there had been brought recently the extension of a new canal which since 1901 had been opened above Chalma-kazan and had turned this old site into an irrigated area owned by the
8 See above, pp. 134, 140 sq.
9 It was from a point of this ` Sai ' about a mile to the south-west of Kotaz-langar (Map No. 27. A. 4) that the few stucco relievo fragments brought to me towards the close of my stay at Khotan and described in the List below (Samp. 001-5) were subsequently ascertained to have been obtained. This small site of a Buddhist shrine, still marked by a Muham
madan ZiArat in its close vicinity, was visited by me early in December, 1913.
10 Cf. Ancieni Kholan, i. p. 233. For this ground between Yurung-kâsh and Kara-kâsh the map attached to Ancieni Kholan should be consulted. It is left blank in Maps Nos. zo, 21 as having been completely surveyed already on the former journey.