NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
OF CHINESE TURKESTAN AND THE PAMIRS
T. A. JOYCE, M.A.
(Reprinted from the 7onrnal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xlii, July-December, 1912)
IN the ,journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xxxiii, 1903, p. 305, I was permitted by the kindness of Dr. M. A. (now Sir Aurcl) Stein to publish the physical measurements which he had made in the villages of Khotan and Keriya during his first archaeological expedition in the Taklamakan desert in 1900-1. During his more recent expedition, in 1906-8, he secured a far more extensive series, which includes most of the towns and villages around the desert, and also certain tribes of the mountainous country to the west and south-west. The preliminary account of this second journey has already appeared (Ruins of Desert Cathay, 1912, London), and the extent and value of the archaeological discoveries made by him are admirably foreshadowed therein. When we consider the archaeological and geographical results alone, we cannot but be amazed at the energy and pertinacity of the man who accomplished so much in comparatively so short a time. But even these results do not represent the sum total of Sir Aurel's activities. In the midst of all his other work he found time to collect the measurements of over 60o individuals (ten separate measurements being taken on each subject) and to record their descriptive characters ' as well. The deductions from these measurements he had kindly permitted me to examine and to publish with the accompanying notes in the Yournal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. xlii, pp. 450 sqq. They are now offered here in a final form, with the addition of the complete list of individual measurements, Table 1.
The following measurements were taken on practically all individuals, in accordance with the instructions published in the third edition of Notes and Queries on Anthropology :—(1) head-length ; (2) head-breadth ; (3) nose-length ; (4) nose-breadth ; (9) bizygomatic breadth ; (9a) total facial length ; (16) standing height ; and (2o) span of arms. In addition, two other measurements were noted : (U.F.L.) upper facial length, from nasion to alveolar point, and (H. Cir.) horizontal circumference of head, passing over glabella and occipital point. Besides these measurements, the following descriptive characters were recorded, also in accordance with Notes and Queries :Colour of skin and eyes, presence or absence of the ` Mongolian fold ', colour, character, and amount of hair, shape of face, shape of nose, and profession of the subject. From the measurements taken, the following indices have been calculated :—Cephalic, Nasal, Total Facial, Upper Facial, Stature-Span. In the facial indices the total facial length and upper facial length respectively are expressed as percentages of the bizygomatic breadth, according to a method frequently adopted, which, however, is not that given in Notes and Queries, where the converse is recommended. The stature-span index is obtained by reduçing the span to a percentage of the stature. The absolutes and indices have been grouped according to tribe and village, and for each group the Means, Standard Deviations, Coefficients of Variability, and their probable errors have been calculated. In the subjoined paper these will be symbolized as follows :—M = mean ; EM = probable error of M ; o = standard deviation ; Eor = probable error of o ; C = coefficient of variability; EC = probable error of C.' The various means, together with their probable errors and variabilities, are shown in Tables 2 to 8.
S being the sum of each group of absolutes or indices, difference of each individual from the mean, SD the sum of
N the number of individuals composing the group, D the these differences, and SD' the sum of the squares of the