1352 NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF [Appendix C
In dealing with so large a number of means of absolutes and indices (fifteen in all) it is very difficult to estimate the extent to which one tribe may be related to another, especially as more than two elements appear to enter into the composition of the population as a whole. An attempt has therefore been made to assess the difference between each pair of tribes in the following manner. A pair of tribes is taken, and from the means and standard deviations of corresponding absolutes or indices (symbolized as M1 and 0r1, and M2 and o'2, respec-
tively) is obtained the fraction M + 2 . This fraction we will call A, and when 0 has been found for each
absolute and index for every pair of tribes, the various O's expressing the difference between each pair are added together. The total, which we will symbolize as 2,,A, may be termed the ` Differential Index ', and expresses in a single term the sum of the differences existing between each pair of tribes. The MA for all pairs of tribes are shown in Table 8, and it may be added that where a ED contains among its factors a A which amounts to i or over, that MA is printed in italics.
In this connexion I must acknowledge the valuable assistance of Mr. H. E. Soper, of the Biometric Laboratory, University College, London. He is responsible for the calculations which have given M, v, and C, and their errors, for all absolutes and indices except those relating to head-length, head-breadth, and the cephalic index ; and has calculated all indices except the cephalic, Further, he has prepared the Tables 6 and 7, and it was he who suggested to me the formula for obtaining EA. For the values excepted above, and for the calculations which have given EA for every pair of tribes, I must confess the responsibility, as well as for the handling of all data not obtained by Sir Aurel Stein.
DISTRIBUTION OF TI3E PEOPLE.
Furthest west are the Kafirs of Kafiristan (Fig. 8-1o), of whom the greater number measured are cultivators, although nearly a third are herdsmen. North-east of the Kafirs are the people of Faizabad in Badaklishan, and a number of individuals from this locality were measured in Yarkand, whither they had travelled for purposes of trade. Between the Kafirs and Tashkurghan, almost in a straight line, are situated the Chitrali, the Mastuji (Figs. 7, 21), the Wakhi, and, around Tashkurghan itself, the Sarikoli (Figs. 22, 24). Practically all these are cultivators, and all, as well as the Kafirs, are mountain people. East of the Wakhi, in the mountains which fringe the south-western portion of the Taklamakan desert, are the Pakhpu (Fig. 23), practically all herdsmen ; further east, still keeping to the high country, are the people of Nissa and Karanghu-tagh, inhabitants of penal settlements and therefore of very mixed composition. They are herdsmen in the main, but a fair number are cultivators. East of them, still in the high ground, are the people of Polur, purer than the last, and cultivators in the main. Descending to the edge of the desert, we find, to the north-cast of the Pakhpu, the people of Kök-yar, mainly cultivators ; north of Karanghu-tagh is Khotan, peopled chiefly by cultivators, with a sprinkling of artisans ; north of Polur is Keriya, mainly herdsmen with a smaller number of cultivators ; and, east of the last, Niya, entirely cultivators.
Returning to Kök-yar and proceeding north round the western edge of the desert, we find the people of Bagh-jigda, an outlying settlement of Yarkand, cultivators. Turning eastward along the northern edge of the desert we have the Dolans of Tumshuk, now agriculturists, but, until quite recently, herdsmen. North of them, and off the trade-route, are the people of Kelpin (Fig. 342), chiefly cultivators. Further north, in Uch-turfan, are the Kirghiz (Fig. 333), mainly herdsmen, and now little exposed to external influences. East of the last is Ak-su, situated on the main route, and often recolonized, agricultural in the main, but with a certain number of traders. Some way further east is the people of Korla, mainly agricultural, and, north-east of the last, Turfan (Fig. 264). The population here, principally agricultural, is probably rather mixed, since the dress is Chinese, though the people themselves have spoken Turki since the sixth century. Chinese influence is even more marked in Hami (Fig. 263), eastward of Turfan, since it is on the Chinese military route ; the measurements are chiefly of cultivators. To the south are the cultivators of Tun-huang and Nan-hu, Chinese immigrants, to whom allusion is made below simply as ' Chinese'. Finally, west of the last, immediately west of Lop-nor, on the southern edge of the desert, are the Loplik and Charkhlik (Figs. 90, 91), the former being the remains of an old fishing population