1354 NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF [Appendix C
near the mountaineers. It is interesting to note the rather high index of the Chinese, due almost entirely to the extreme shortness of their noses. Near them, though less platyrrhine, owing to their superior nasal length, are the Loplik. The Wakhi and Karanghu-tagh fall next one to another, both with a high degree of leptorrhinity. Turfan, Hami, and the Charkhlik hold a corresponding position among the platyrrhines.
On the whole the nasal measurements support the conclusions inferred from the head-measurements. The
Kirghiz, Kelpin, and Dolan remain as members of a distinct group, though it is now seen that Ak-su and Faizabad differ from them in some respects. It should be noted, however, that their leptorrhinity is due to the great length of their noses, while that of the Chitrali, Sarikoli, and Kafir is the result of relatively extreme narrowness of nostril. The Wakhi show a belated tendency to group themselves in certain respects with their geographical neighbours, while Karanghu-tagh and Nissa display occasional affinities with the peoples of the
desert fringe, Kök-yar, Polur, Khotan, Korla, etc. On the whole the Chinese and Loplik appear still to fall nearer each to the other than to the rest. Bagh-jigda displays occasional similarities to the mountaineers.
Tables 4 and 8.—Extremes, Kafirs (x i6), Dolan (146). This is one of the most valuable characters of all, since the variation between people and people is very great, while the variability of the respective means is comparatively small. It is all the more pleasing, therefore, to find that the evidence of the head-measurements, as modified by that afforded by the nose-measurements, receives additional support. The mountaineer tribes, Mastuji, Chitrali, Pakhpu, Sarikoli, follow immediately upon the Kafir. At the other end Faizabad, Kirghiz, Kelpin, and Ak-su (with Polur intervening between the two last) follow the Dolan. Additional evidence of the relationship of Bagh-jigda with the Pamir mountaineers is afforded by their position between the Chitrali and Pakhpu ; while the tendency of Nissa and Karanghu-tagh to approximate to the desert folk is exhibited by their position in the middle of the scale. The place of the Wakhi, between the most euryprosopic of the Pamir peoples and the most leptoprosopic of the desert population, is equally illuminating; and the Loplik take the position we might expect, about midway between the Chinese, with whom they have so often been related, and their neighbours the Charkhlik, who, in their turn, stand very near the people of Khotan, their principal mother-village.
Total Facial Length.
Tables 4 and 8.—Extremes, Loplik (111), Faizabad (121). This is not nearly so useful a character ; there is little difference between the highest and lowest means, and their variability is comparatively very great. To follow the fortunes of the groups into which, on the evidence of former measurements and indices, the peoples seem to fall, the Ak-su come next to the Loplik, with a mean of 112, and are thus widely separated from Faizabad. The Dolan, Kelpin, and Khirghiz fall about the middle, the first in the direction of length of face, the two latter in the direction of shortness. The Pamir mountaineers, including the Wakhi, but not the Chitrali, show a tendency to mass themselves towards the short-faced end of the scale, and thus for the first time are brought into some relation with the Ak-su, Kelpin, and Kirghiz. Nissa also appears at this end, but Karanghu-tagh is at the other end, with Turfan, Khotan, Kök-yar, and Korla. To complete the confusion, the Chinese have a length 117, and are, therefore, some distance from the,Loplik.
Total Facial Index.
Tables 4 and 8.—Extremes, Kirghiz (79), Kafirs (97). ,The evidence of this index is far more valuable, since the variability of M is much less ; it is also more pleasant to contemplate, since it corroborates that afforded by the facial breadth, and we return to our original grouping. The Kirghiz, Dolan, Kelpin, and Ak-su appear as the most euryprosopic, with Faizabad very near. The Kafir, Chitrali, and Mastuji figure as the most leptoprosopic, followed closely by the Pakhpu and Sarikoli ; Bagh-jigda falls between the last two. The desert population, including Karanghu-tagh and Nissa, occupy the middle of the scale, Polur and Keriya being the most euryprosopic, 1-Iami and Kök-yar the most leptoprosopic. The grouping of the Loplik with the first pair and the Chinese with the second, however, shows that the difference between. the two, as evidenced in their respective facial lengths, is significant.
Upper Facial Length.
Tables 5 and 8.—Extremes, Keriya (64), Kök-yar (70). Again, as with the total facial length, we have a small difference between means accompanied by great relative variability. The most interesting point lies in