Appendix C] CHINESE TURKESTAN AND THE PAMIRS 1357
Its position is perhaps midway between the Desert and Kirghiz groups, with a slight leaning towards the latter, owing to the great variability of head-circumference.
Table I1 shows the inverse order of relationship of the various peoples, and perhaps the differential index affords a better indication of remoteness than of affinity. The highest 2,6. exists between the Kafir and Dolan, viz. 16.28 ; and, as far as E6. of 13 and over are concerned, the antithesis between the Pamir group and the Kirghiz group, and between the latter and the Chinese, alone appears. It is true that the names of Karanghu-tagh and Nissa occur, but these, as we have seen, have a very mixed population, and it is evident that the population contains a large Pamir element. With regard to Z6. of 12 and over, we find certain of the Desert group, viz. Khotan, Keriya, and Korla, opposed to the Kafir. As we have seen that the Pamir group have a certain relationship with the Desert group, we may take it that the Kafir, who are after all only related with the former through the Mastuji, constitute an extreme, and bear a certain relationship to some people whose influence does not extend as far as the desert. The Loplik, too, appear as widely divergent from the Kirghiz group, as might be expected owing to their relationship with the Chinese. The difference, which tends to separate the people of Faizabad from the Pamir peoples and the Chinese, accentuates the traces of relationship which have already been found for them with the Kirghiz group. It is unnecessary to pursue the investigation further in great detail, but attention may be called to one or two points. When Z6. of 10 and over are considered, it is seen that the Chinese, who have already shown a divergence from Niya, are differentiated from Keriya, and, what is more important, from Korla, one of the Desert group. Among the Pamir group the Chitrali must be regarded as influenced by some extraneous element, probably that which enters into the composition of the Kafir, since they are brought into opposition with Turfan and Korla. Kök-yar, which has been related most closely with Khotan, and next with the Sarikoli, is differentiated from the Kafir, Kirghiz, and Loplik, the last being, as we know, closely related to the Chinese. To establish the position of the last named and of the Wakhi, it is necessary to consider the 26. of 9 and over. We then find that the Chinese are widely separated from the Kirghiz and Desert groups ; that they are not related to the Pamir peoples is evident from the fact that their E,6, for the Chitrali and Sarikoli are over 8. They, therefore, constitute an extreme. As for the Wakhi, they are shown to have no relationship with the Kirghiz group by being opposed to the Kirghiz themselves, while their I6. for the Kafir is over 8. The position of Keriya and Niya is interesting. They show the greatest divergence from the Pamir group and the Chinese, but differ, though in a lesser degree, from Faizabad and the Dolan. Keriya, however, has been shown to bear some sort of relationship to Kelpin, while its E6. for the Charkhlik, one of the Desert group, is over 8. Keriya probably, therefore, occupies an intermediate position, or, together with Niya, which is further removed from the Kirghiz group, contains sonie extraneous element. The E6. of Faizabad and the Kirghiz, which is over 8, shows that the former cannot be definitely included in the Kirghiz group, and, therefore, probably stands half-way between the latter and the Desert group, especially as it bears some slight affinity with Khotan.
Conclusions from the Measurements.
The foregoing examination would seem to establish the fact that the various peoples with which this paper deals may be divided into four groups. First, a group of mountain folk, all closely allied, in the extreme west of the area under consideration. The nucleus of the group is formed by the Sarikoli, Mastuji, and Pakhpu, with an easterly extension into the Desert area in the shape of the Bagh-jigda. Closely akin to them are the Chitrali and Kafir, who, nevertheless, exhibit certain differences without approaching any of the other peoples, and, therefore, probably contain some element foreign to this district. Second, a group of desert peoples, the nucleus of which is composed of Turfan, Khotan, Korla, and Charkhlik. This group has a westerly extension into the mountains in the shape of the Wakhi ; it possesses certain affinities with the peoples forming the nucleus of the former group, and the inhabitants of some localities, such as Kök-yar and the mixed populations of Karanghutagh and Nissa, appear to stand half-way between the two. With the Desert group should be classed the people of Polu and the rather mixed population of Hami ; Niya and Keriya also have some affinity with certain of its members, but seem to contain some other element also. However, their apparent aloofness may be due to the small number of measurements available. The third group, one which is very distinct, is formed of the Kirghiz, Kelpin, Dolan, and Ak-su. Traces of relationship with the Desert group, however, are not wanting, though these are slight, and the people of Faizabad may represent a mixture of the two elements, or, indeed, all three, Pamir, Desert, and ` Turki'. The fourth group, the Chinese, seems to stand practically alone,, though the Loplik arc