1358 NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF [Appendix C
evidently related to them, and so form a connecting link with the Desert peoples. The most interesting point about the Chinese is their obvious differentiation from the Kirghiz, who have been said to be the nearest related to the Mongolians of all Turki peoples. A possible explanation is not very far to seek, however ; if the measurements given by Deniker in The Races of Man be considered, it will be seen that the data collected among the people of Nan-hu and Tun-huang correspond very closely with those quoted by him for the Northern Chinese, while the measurements of the Kirghiz and Dolan approximate very closely to those given for various Southern Mongolian peoples, with the exception of the stature. It may well be that the Kirghiz group represent a blend of the Southern Mongolian with the Turkish' stock.
It will be as well to survey shortly the descriptive characters of the peoples here studied, though material of this nature is less exact and more difficult to handle than actual measurements. In the first place, the eye of the
observer must be influenced by an unconscious tendency to make comparisons with the last people studied ; in the second, the reduction of data to percentages, the only method which renders comparison possible, is apt to be misleading when the number of observations is few, as in the case of Faizabad, Korla, Bagh-jigda, Ak-su,
and Nissa. .
Skin-colour. Table 12.—In all cases, with two exceptions, the bulk of the population falls under the head of ' white-rosy '. The exceptions are the Dolan, of whom 75 per cent. are ' brownish-white ', and the Chinese,
with 65 per cent.'' yellow '. The Kirghiz, Kelpin, Faizabad, and Ak-su have respectively 42 per cent., 26 per cent.,
25 per cent., and 23 per cent. ' brownish-white,' and the Kelpin and Ak-su 7 per cent. and 15 per cent. ' yellowish-white ' also. The only peoples who contain a definitely ' brown ' element are the Kafir, 22 per cent. ;
Karanghu-tagh, 8 per cent. ; and Mastuji, 4 per cent. (with another 4 per cent. ' brownish-yellow ' ), two of them being classed by their measurements as belonging to a definite group, and one as having affinities with that group. The other tribes are either entirely white-rosy ' (the rest of the mountain folk belong to this category) or white-rosy' in the main with varying percentages of ' brownish-white ' and ' yellowish-white '. Korla and Turfan, both of which have been subjected to Chinese influences, have small percentages of yellows'.
Hair-colour. Table 13.—The individuals have been grouped under three headings : (a) black, (b) dark-brown, (c) medium and fair. In six cases the bulk of the population is black-haired ; the Chinese .(75 per cent.), Kirghiz
(50 per cent.), Kelpin (47 per cent.), Korla (46 per cent.), Nissa (44 per cent.), and Loplik (4o per cent.). The
Dolan have an equal percentage (44 per cent.) of blacks and dark-browns. The Chinese, therefore, and the members of the Kirghiz group show a tendency, most marked in the case of the first, towards nigrescence ;
the Loplik naturally have been affected by the Chinese. The small number of Nissa observations (9) invalidates
the figure for this people. One people only, that of Niya, has the bulk of its population medium (47 per cent.) ; other tribes which show a tendency towards fairness are : Pakhpu (32 per cent. medium or fair and no blacks),
Wakhi (32 per cent.), Karanghu-tagh (31 per cent. and no blacks), Sarikoli (3o per cent.), Kafir (28 per cent.), Kök-yar (26 per cent.), and Loplik (26 per cent., though here, as we have seen, the bulk of the population is black-haired). As regards the rest generally, the other members of the Pamir group have a very high percentage of dark-browns ; the Desert folk a lower percentage of dark-browns, with a higher percentage of blacks, and in a few cases, of mediums.
Hair-quality. Table 13.—Three categories, straight, wavy, and curly. This gives interesting results ; the Chinese show 95 per cent. straight. The Kafir, in the matter of skin- and hair-colour so far removed from them,
alone of the rest display a straight-haired element (28 per cent.), for the one straight-haired individual at Khotan
may be regarded as negligible. Ak-su, Kelpin, Dolan, and Kirghiz are entirely wavy-haired, and Faizabad shows 83 per cent. wavy, the rest curly. With the exception of a single wavy-haired individual at Keriya, the
remaining Desert and Pamir peoples are entirely curly. This result gives strong support to the measurements, and implies the isolation of the Chinese, the approximation of the Pamir and Desert groups, the presence in the Kafir of some foreign element, probably derived from the west, the specialized character of the Kirghiz group, with the people of Faizabad standing between them, on the one side, and the Desert and Pamir populations on the other.
Hair amount (face). Table 13.—Two categories : (a) abundant and moderate ; (b) scanty and nil. Shaven individuals are; of course, not included. In this respect the mountain peoples fall in the first category, with