Appendix C] CHINESE TURKESTAN AND THE PAMIRS 1359
the exception of the Pakhpu, who show 8 per cent. scanty. Again the Chinese constitute an extreme with 7o per cent. in the second category (50 per cent. being nil'). The Kirghiz stand near them with 71 per cent. in the second category (i i per cent. being ` nil ' ). The hair-growth of the rest of the Kirghiz group appears to have been affected by the neighbourhood of the Desert population, the figures being : Ak-su, 46 per cent. (b) ; Dolan, 25 per cent. (b) ; Kelpin, 14 per cent. (b) ; Faizabad, 8 per cent. (b). However, the Desert people themselves display an occasional glabrous tendency, which is accentuated in such places as Hami (47 per cent.) and Turfan (54 per cent.), where Chinese influence appears in the ethnography, and it is possible that the comparative hairiness of Faizabad is due to some affinity, of which traces have been seen before, with the Pamir peoples. The Loplik stand near the Chinese with 63 per cent. of individuals with glabrous tendencies, but the position of the Charkhlik, with 67 per cent. of such individuals, is rather surprising ; also that of Kök-yar (31 per cent.), who have hithero been regarded as a Desert people with a tendency to approximate in some particulars to the mountain folk.
Eye-colour. Table 14.—Three categories, dark, medium, and light (including blue). On the whole the Desert peoples seem to have the most deeply pigmented eyes, though the light hair seen at Niya is accompanied by 30 per cent. of light eyes. At Ak-su, Polur, Hami, Korla, and among the Charkhlik and Dolan, no light eyes are found, and, except in the last case, 5o per cent. or more of the population is dark-eyed. On the other hand, among the Pamir peoples, the Chitrali and Bagh-jigda have no dark eyes, and the highest percentage of the latter, occurring among the Mastuji, is only 14 per cent. Among the Kirghiz and Kelpin the bulk of the population is medium-eyed, with a large percentage of dark eyes and a small percentage of light. The Chinese are mainly dark-eyed (45 per cent.), but a fair sprinkling (15 per cent.) of blue eyes is found. At Nissa and Turfan the great majority of individuals are dark-eyed, but, as regards the rest of the Desert population (except Niya and the places already mentioned), medium eyes are in the majority, though a heavy percentage of dark eyes and a small percentage of light are observable.
Mongolian fold.' Table 14.--As regards the fold over the caruncle, the Chinese lead the way with 44 per cent., and Turfan, long exposed to Chinese influence, is second (19 per cent.). Korla, otherwise closely related to Turfan, is third (15 per cent). The Loplik show a percentage of io, in which the fold or traces of it have been observed ; and traces also occur at Hami and Keriya. With regard to the Kirghiz, though the fold itself is said to be absent, yet 37 per cent. of the individuals measured were said to have ` Mongolian eyes'. This character is interesting as showing the limited extent of Chinese influence in the area under consideration.
The other ` descriptive characters' shape of face and nose, give practically no results.
Comparison with Other Peoples.
In order to attempt to fix more definitely the racial affinities of the peoples under discussion, it will be well to consider the physical characteristics of one or two peoples to the west and south. For this purpose I have calculated 2,6, between all tribes mentioned above and the following (see Tables 15, 16) : 58 Galcha,2 a primitive Iranian people inhabiting the mountain district of Karateghin ; 8o Pathans,3 representatives of the Indo-Afghan race ; 6o Biloch,3 also Indo-Afghans, with a strong affinity with the Iranians (Deniker) ; 44 Dards 4 (Yeshkuns and Chins of Dardistan), whose root-stock is Indo-Afghan (Deniker), though the Yeshkun language has affinities with Turki (Biddulph) ; 5 31 Ladakhi,4 on the Tibetan border ; and 38 Tibetans of Tibet.3 The EO have been calculated from the following measurements and indices : head-length, head-breadth, cephalic index, nasal length, nasal breadth, nasal index, stature. As regards the Galcha, however, Ujfalvy does not give the nasal breadths, and consequently this measurement and the nasal index cannot be included.
The Galcha.—Table 16 shows the 26, for the Galcha and all other tribes mentioned ; Table 17 the degree of relationship between the Galcha and other tribes. Names and figures in italics signify that the 26, contains a .6, reaching i or over. It can be seen at once that, as far as the measurements available are concerned; the Galcha seem closely allied to two very distinct groups, the Wakhi and Desert folk on the one side and the Kirghiz group on the other. Unfortunately, Ujfalvy does not give the bizygomatic breadths of the individuals'