1.i Lai ming hua chi, treatise on Chinese art, 883.
Li T`ai-pin, inscriptions celebrating his sacred gifts, &c., 798 sq.
Li Tao-yuan, notices in his commentary on Shut' Ching: of Charchan, 297, 302, 325 ; Shan-shan, 324-7, 343 ; Loulan, 419 sqq. See also Lop-nor, Moshan, Shan-shan.
Li-yuan Ho, river, I129.
Jiang, Chinese char., on bronze seal, r18. Liang dynasty, see Chinese coins.
Liang-chou, city : route from Lan-chou, 723 ; border commands from Liang-chou to Tun-huang, 724 sq. ; L. ravaged by Hsiung-nu, 731 ; Hsüantsang at, 1142 n. 4a. See also l zi-wez:
Liao Ta-lao-yeh, Chinese magistrate of Charkhlik district: help from, 311,455; his death, 455.
Lielz Kuo Chuan, Chinese romance, MS. fr. of, 918.
Lieh nil chuan, ' Biographies of eminent women ', 764.
Lien-pin, near Sarhad, Wakhân, 53, 55, 67 ; Kao Hsien-chih defeats Tibetans at, 53-5 ; account of battle in Tang Annals, 66.
lignite fr., 449. See also seals.
lily, see designs.
Limes : border wall, use of term for Han extension of Chinese Great Wall justified, 725 ; analogies from Rome and Indian NW. frontier, 696, 725. remains of : near An-hsi, 603 sqq., ro93 sqq., 1099, 1136-9; near Wanshan-tzil defile, 727 ; near Chin-Ca, 1134.
Tun-huang Limes : main features of remains, 736 sqq. ; explorations begun N. of Tun-huang, 587 sqq.; wall discovered at T. xxvr, 591 ; line of wall E. of T. xxvi, 604 ; westernmost Limes at terminal basin of Su-lo Ho, 632 sq., 729 ; changes its direction, 634 ; possible extension, 635 ; southwestern flank of wall, 640 sqq., 739. Westernmost wall, 633, 635, 656 sqq., 739 ; extends along riverine section of Lop-Tun-huang route, 553 ; comprises towers T. Iv-xirl, 648 ; line follows Lou-lan route, 696 ; analogy of Roman Limes lines, ib. ; line near T. vu, 568, 571, 656, 658. Marsh sections, 661 sqq. ; wall extends to Khara-nor lake, 572, 662 sq. Wall near T. x, 662 ; near T. xi, 666 sq.; near T. xri a, 669 ; well-preserved stretch of wall near T. xiii, 681 sq. ; anc. track along Limes near T. xxix, 682 ; wall NW. of T. xrv, 697 ; E. of T. xiv. a, 698 ; section T. xv-xvir, 7 t o sq. ; Lake (Khara-nor) section, 717 sqq. Secondary wall from T. xry towards Nan-hu, 6r8, 621, 628, 731. See Yii-min kuan.
Magazine', 712 sqq., 739, 757.
topography, climatic conditions, &c., of Tun-huang Limes line : guidance of Tungan nomad, 590 sq.; topographical order followed in description of ruins, 594, 632 ; use of lake and other natural features as substitute for wall, 573sq., 584, 576,633; every advantage taken of natural features, 600, 604, 634 sq., 64o sqq., 662 sqq., 681, 729, 736 sq., 74o ; wall replaced by marshes, 662 sqq., 718, 736; ' wet border' formed by marsh belt, 718; barrenness of ground traversed, 604, 739 sq.; line keeps away from river between An-hsi and Tun-huang, 604, 1095 ; marshy depression south of line, 603 ; fed by canals and floods, ib. ; deceptive ground near T. xII, 629 ; prevailing winds blow from E. and NE., 643; wall line parallel to wind direction 604 sq., 643 ; effect of wind-erosion, 569, 643 ; desiccation advanced since Limes construction, 708 ; cultivation impossible along Limes W. of Tunhuang, 741 ; ground near SW. flank, 642, 663. Marsh section, 663 sqq. ; difficulty of tracing wall over soft soil, 664 ; marsh levels, 664 sq. ; wall as gauge for changes in levels, 665 (see also water-levels); absence of marked climatic change, 666 ; little change in water-level and vegetation of Lake section, 718 ; NE. Limes section, 603 sq. Limes line towards An-hsi, 603 sqq., 1095. Distances along Limes noted in Sha chou chih, 735.
construction of Tun-huang Limes wall : main features, 736 sqq. ; use of fascines in layers (reeds, tamarisks, or 'l'oghraks), 592, 736 ; measurements of fascines, 568, 57o, 6o6, 678, 735 sq. ; standard size of fascines, 65 ; rapidity of construction, 728 ; description and measurements of wall in Sha chou chih, 734 sq. ; solid construction of NE. section of wall, 605 ; dimensions and materials, 6o6 ; technical skill of construction, ib. ; construction near T. xiii, 682 ; construction of Western end of wall, 635 ; specimen of materials, 79o. See also wall construction, watchtowers.
organization, service, and conditions of life, &c., on Tun-huang Limes : protection of Limes provided for by soldier colonies, 742 sq. ; imperial order establishing military agricultural colony (see S. v.), 647, 663, 740 ; order refers to extension of Limes beyond Tun-huang, 74o ; location of colony, 741 sq.; pickets limited by difficulties of supply, 74o ; officers and soldiers, 745 sqq. ; military subdivisions, 746 ; names and stations of companies, 747; fing (administrative area maintaining
a company), 747 sq. (see also s. v.) ; watch-towers guarded by individual companies, 749 ; border troops settled in inhabited area, ib. ; ' indigenous functionaries ' or ' local authorities; (tu-!r), 648, 653, 668, 747, 752 ; officers in charge of watch-towers :
hou-chang, 749 sq. ; hou-shih, 750 ; lsao-shih, 750 n.44i military commandants (lu-wer), 74S sqq., 75o ; subordinate officers : ch`ien jen and ssg-ma (' chiefs of a thousand men '), 746 sq.; Luz-chang, company commanders, 747; wez=shih and shih-shih, 750 ; origin of rank and file named in docs., ib. ; criminals impressed for Limes service, 751 ; ' garrison soldiers ' (convicts) as border colonists, ib.; mounted soldiers, 751, 756; watch-dogs, 752; fire-signals (see s. v.), 752 sqq. ; look-out duty, 754 ; fatigues: ' delimitation of celestial fields ', 755 ; brick-making, plastering, collection of material or supplies, &c., ib. ; temporary exemptions, ib. ; postal service, 756 ; control of ` barrier ' traffic, 679 sq., 693 sq., 756 ; food-supply, 69o, 756 sq. ; calculation of service period, 757 ; officers' pay records, 757 sq. ; arms and equipment, xxiii ; cross-bows and arrows, 758 ; arrow-heads, quivers, swords, shields, armour, and banners, 758 sq. ; stock statements, &c., kept of arms, 76o ; lists of clothing issued, ib. ; hammers used for tent-pitching, ib. ; medical treatment, 761 ; punishments, ib.; official correspondence and notifications, 761 sq. ; records of appointments, border incidents, &c., 762 ; calendar records, 641, 647, 667, 672, 700, 762 ; private letters, 681, 762 sq., 777 ; silk envelope for letter, 700, 763 ; literary fragments, 763 ; treatises, &c., 764 ; writing exercises, 598, 646, 685, 763 ; anc. stationery (see stationery), 764 sqq. ; hardships of service reflected in Tang poems, 748 n. 33a, 751, 756, 765.
history and records of Tun-huang Limes wall : 722 sqq. ; Tun-huang lu and Sha chou chih, local Chinese records of Limes in, 734 sq. ; evidence for dating, 593 sq., 595 ; dated docs. relating to westernmost posts, 636 ; earliest dated record found at T. xx11 c., 720 ; dated docs. confirm accuracy of historical records, 728 ; last dated record, 733; historical value of Chinese wooden does. found at T. vi. b, 646 sqq. ; Limes sections mentioned in Chinese does. from T. xiv, 69r ; abundance of records before middle of Ist cent. s.c., 73o ; absence of documents 39 B. to A. D. I, 730 ; line of Limes shown in Chinese map, 735 n. 3o; the Limes since its construc-