238 FROM GALEHDAR TO BUSHIRE [Chap. VIII
ridge and quite distinct from any changes relative to the sea have taken place within historical times was clearly shown by what I was able to observe within and along the deeply eroded drainage bed stretching south of Sabzâbâd towards the hamlet of Halileh.
Following the western edge of the gradually widening nullah in which this bed lies, I came, at a direct distance of 1,700 yards from the Residency, upon the unmistakable traces of an old ganât cut through the top layer of cretaceous sandstone and ending on the edge of an eroded ravine draining into the nullah. Square shafts descending into the underground channel mark its course for about 60 yards. About 1,000 yards farther to the south there is the channel of another ganât, about 2 feet wide, with its bottom, which is now exposed, lying at a depth of some 4 feet from the surface of the ground. The traces of this ganât, and of another visible about 400 yards farther on, become lost amidst the masses of fallen rock crust marking the western edge of the nullah. It is quite obvious that these canals, leading eastwards from the plateau, now much reduced in width, which skirts the nullah at an elevation of some 40 to 50 feet above its bed, were intended to carry water for irrigating ground which lay either where the wildly fissured nullah now extends, with an average width of between 1,300 and 1,700 yards, or else to a cultivable area beyond it.$ The formation of this nullah must have taken place since these underground canals were constructed, and there can be no possible doubt about its having been caused by the eroding action of rain-water.
The above observations were completely confirmed by what the inspection of another old gandt on the opposite ( eastern) side of the nullah showed. There, at a distance of close on Q miles south-east of Sabzâbâd and close to the road running along the top of a narrow plateau tongue, the line of a canal can be followed for more than 300 feet in the direction of a terrace above the date-palm grove of Bulbuli village to the south-east. At the start near the road the canal is represented by a surface channel, cut into the rock to a depth of half a foot and II-feet wide. This leads to an oblong shaft, 41 feet long and 2 feet wide, cut into the rock to a depth of 5 feet. From here onwards the qandt ran underground, marked by similar shafts on the surface at short intervals, or else, where the rock above the canal has given way and collapsed, by a line of hollows. Finally,
8 Lieutenant G. Pézard has duly noted, loc. cit., p. 36, para. ix, the cavity at the end of the first-mentioned gavât, formed by erosion subsequent to its use, and marks it in Pl. IX with the name Eikat Kraoui. He mentions the local belief of this cavity having served as a troglodyte habitation. The other two ganâts are also briefly recorded by
him on p. 37, para. x.
I may here conveniently mention that the large-scale map of Bushire shows two ganâts in actual use, both descending from higher portions of the ridge to the eastern edge of the peninsula. One serves cultivation at the hamlet of Baghcheh, the other at Zangina, east of Sabzâbâd.