84 EXPLORATIONS IN PERSIAN MAKRAN [Chap. III
widens eastwards into a small plateau about 100 yards long and 50 yards across. This is defended on the south and east by much-decayed walls now reduced to the state of sangars, or stone-heaps, and by a tower built with sun-dried bricks. Little broken pottery is to be found on this eastern portion of the fortified area, which probably was not used for regular occupation but may have served as an outwork.
To the west of the gap the major portion of the defended area stretches away for a direct distance of about 470 yards. It comprises along the crest of the ridge two small flat-topped knolls at heights of about 280 and 290 feet. Farther west it runs out into a very narrow bluff which ascends to 350 feet, with rocks overhanging in places. On the south the defensive line of wall descends from a height of about 150 feet near the gap to a level of about 100 feet, and then keeps for some distance just above this along a precipitous ledge of rock which serves as a natural wall. Thus there is here enclosed an area which, owing to the easy slope of its terraces, allowed space for some larger structures ( marked I—IV in Plan) . Within this area there are found also two circular wells cut through the solid rock. In order to protect this lower ground more effectively the line of wall which descends east of it from the gap has been strengthened by a massive circular tower at the end of a small spur, and by a trench cut parallel to it into the rock of the slope below. A similar but shorter trench is found also to the east of the wall closing the gap.
The top of the knoll rising above the large brick-built structures bears completely decayed remains of what may have been a kind of central keep built with undressed slabs of stone ( Fig. 28) . It is adjoined by two small towers constructed with sun-dried bricks. This knoll appears to have been defended by a separate wall and to have served as a citadel. On either side of it the narrow crest of the ridge bears plenty of debris, marking the position of small dwellings, the roughly built stone walls of which have crumbled away.
On January 20th trial excavations were made in the mound of badly decayed brickwork, which marks the principal residence of the site. The mound has a length of about 67 feet and an average width of about 46 feet. Its maximum height is about 20 feet. Owing to far-advanced decomposition of the sun-dried brickwork and to erosion, no structural features could be recognized. But the numerous deep hollows to be seen from the top suggest that they may be due to drainage having cut its way down into what may have been vaulted rooms in the substructure. This was certainly the case at the great palace-like ruin on the Kôh-i-Khwâja, in Sistân, where I had observed similar deep cavities in the brick-built structures flanking the central court.2
2 See Innermost Asia, ii. p. 923, fig. 475.