National Institute of Informatics - Digital Silk Road Project
|Stein, Marc Aurel|
|Hungary / Budapest|
|Archaeology ; Linguistics|
|British archaeologist and explorer. Born in Hungary, Stein studied at universities in Vienna and Tubingen before going to Britain to study archaeology at Oxford. In 1887, he made his first trip to India, and served as the principal of the Oriental College in Lahore and registrar of Punjab University. By this stage, he had mastered six languages (Greek, Latin, French, English, Sanskrit and Persian). He then moved to Calcutta in 1899 where he became principal of the Calcutta Madrasah. Stein was involved in four Central Asian expeditions. His first expedition, which took place in 1900, involved the excavation of numerous sites, such as Dandan-Uiliq, Niya Endere, and Kroraina (Loulan). He was able to unearth numerous artifacts and compiled his detailed records into expedition reports. He became a naturalized British citizen in 1904, and brought a large amount of ancient scrolls and paintings from the Dunhuang caves to Britain. These scrolls and artifacts were purchased by Stein from the caves' caretaker Wang Yuanlu, in 1907 and 1914. In acknowledgement of these achievements, he was awarded the C.I.E. (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) in 1910. In 1912 he was awarded the K.C.I.E. (Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire), which allowed him to be called "Sir."|
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