by his queen on the banks of the Klcientowei (Gandhara) 580 cities surrendered to the Chinese arms, and the king was carried prisoner to China. A magician, who accompanied the Chinese general from India was employed to treat the Emperor Tait-sung, who was very ill, but with no success. Wang H vantsé, the envoy who had gone on the mission which resulted in this war, wrote a history of all the transactions in twelve books, but it is lost.'
In 667-8 it is asserted the Kings of the five Indies all sent to offer homage ; and this homage was repeated in 672 and 692. These kings are named in the Chinese Annals—(1) the King of Eastern India, named Molopamna ; (2) the King of Western India, called Slailoyito ; (3) the King of Southern India, called Chilulchipalo ; (4) the King of Northern India, called Nana ; (5) the King of Central India, called Timosina.2
In 670 King Datopiatissa of Ceylon sent a memorial to the Emperor with a present of native productions. Another Ceylonese embassy came in 711.3
46. In 713 an embassy came to the Emperor Hiwantsung from Chentolopiti (Chanclrcrpida), King of Kashmir, acknowledging allegiance, and some years later a patent of investiture was granted to this prince. A successor and brother called Mutopi (Muktopida) also offered homage and requested the Emperor to send troops into Kashmir, offering to quarter them on the banks of the Lake Mahapadma in the centre of that valley. Tribute continued to be paid regularly by Kashmir for some time. The pressure of the rising power of Tibet probably induced this state to seek Chinese protection.`
1 Julien, pp. 107-110. The Siladitya of this account is known from Hiwen Thsang to have been one of the great kings of Indian history. His empire extended from the sea-coast of Orissa at least as far northwest as Kanauj, which was his capital, a4d possibly to the frontiers of Kashmir (see Lassen, iii, 673 segq.). Lassen, as far as I can discover, says nothing as to this Chinese invasion of India, or the usurper Alanashun. Nor is the chronology consistent with his (from Hiwen Thsang) which continues Siladitya's reign to 650 ; whilst the account followed in the text makes him already dead in 646. The Emperor Taitsong died in 650.
2 Chine Ancienne, p. 301. 3 Tennent, i, p. 597.
4 Remusat, u. s., p. 106; Chin. Anc., 311 ; Remand in Mem. de l'Acacl.,