LANKHABALUS (the Nicobar Islands) ;' and the two (Andaman) Islands in the SEA OF ANDAMAN ; KALAH-BAR, a dependence of Zâbaj (some port on the Malacca coast, perhaps Kadah, commonly spelt Quedda ; ZAbaj2 representing some great monarchy then existing on the Malay Islands, probably in Java, the king of which was known to the Arabs by the Hindu title of Maharaj) ; BATÛMA or TAN11MAII (perhaps errors for Natiima, the Natuna Islands) ; KADRANJ, (Siam or some other region on the Gulf of Siam) ; SANE (Champa, but here used in a sense much more extensive than the modern Champa, and including Cambodia) ; SANDAR FULAT (the Sondur and Condur group of Marco Polo, the chief island of which is now called Pulo Condore) .3
' Probably we have in the second part of this name the Malay Pulo meaning island. I may observe that there is a considerable island belonging to Queddah, and surrounded by many smaller ones, at the northern entrance of the Straits of Malacca, which is called Pulo Langkawi.
2 The Syrian bishops Thomas, Jaballaha, Jacob, and Denha, sent on a mission to India in 1503 by the Patriarch Elias, were ordained to go to the land of the Indians and the islands of the Seas which are between Dabag and Sin and Masin." (Assemanni iii, Pt. i, 592.) This Dabag is probably a relic of the form Zd.baj of the early narratives, used also by Al-Biruni. Ibn Khurdadbah and Edrisi use Jaba for Zâbaj. Walckenaer quoted by Mr. Major (op. cit. p. xxvii) says, ; " The puranas and Hindu books show that the title of Maharaja or Great King was originally applied to the sovereign of a vast monarchy which in the second century comprised a great part of India, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and the neighbouring islands. This dynasty continued till 628," etc. It is a pity that Baron Walckenær did not 'quote more definitely "the Puranas and Hindu books " which give this precise and interesting information, and in the absence of such quotation there must be some hesitation in accepting it. The truth appears to be that whilst the antiquities, literature, and traditions of Java and other islands show that communication with continental India in remote times must have been large and intimate, nothing distinct has yet been produced to show that any record of' such communication or knowledge of those islands has been preserved on the Continent. Friedrich and Lassen certainly seem to have no knowledge of such records as Walckenær alludes to.
3 This is not in accordance with Maury, who places Sander Fulat arbitrarily on the coast of Cochin China, perhaps from confining Sanf or Champa to the tract now retaining that name (for the names are identical, the Arabs, having no ch and no p, necessarily writing Champa as Sanfa). But Crawfurd states that the name Champa with the Malays really ap-