Nan-shan, together with insets on the same; or on a - larger scale, of certain archœologieally interesting areas. These maps were all prepared by Mr. J. W. Addison, Draftsman of the R. Geographical Society, from the .4 miles to 1 inch sheets then in course of publication. But as the latter were available at the time only in outline proofs, the hill-shading as well. as certain other details were supplemented from tracings of the original plane-table drawings. In addition the surveys of 1900-01 were utilized for filling in certain portions of the .ground. Superior draftsmanship and skilful lithographic reproduction compensated to some extent for the disadvantages of a much reduced scale and make these maps still very convenient for purposes of general reference.
In the note accompanying the publication of these reduced-scale maps in the Geo-.
graphical Journal I have already had occasion to record essential data Compilation of maps. regarding the compilation of the 4 miles to 1 inch sheets, as kindly
communicated to me at the time by Mr. J. Eccles, late Superintendent, Survey of India, who, in succession to Captain (now Colonel) H. H. Turner, R.E., had supervised the work. Explanations on specific points of the surveys as there represented will be found in the Notes given below in Chapter iv with regard to individual sheets of the new map publication. Finally reference may be made here to Chapter III for an account of the methods by which certain topographical features of the ground surveyed on the second journey have received in the new 1: 500,000 maps a more adequate representation than it was possible to give in the 4 miles to 1 inch sheets.
SEc IoN IV.—SURVEYS OF THE THIRD EXPEDITION; 1913-15
Plentiful as were the results brought back from my second Central-Asian journey, they could not keep me from remembrance of the openings for interesting exploratory work which, on my previous travels, disproportion between the available time and the vast extent of the ground had obliged me to pass by both within Chinese Turkistan and in adjacent regions. The generous consideration and help of the Government of India, under the Viceroyalty of Lord Hardinge, enabled me to use in 1913 the favourable political conditions prevailing in those regions for my start on a third expedition. Planned to last for a slightly longer period than the second, it was to take me also across the Pamirs and adjoining mountain regions of Russian Turkistan as well as over parts of easternmost Persia. If my work in these parts was to be mainly antiquarian it seemed all the more important to employ the time available on Chinese soil to full advantage for geographical and topographical labours.
Our previous surveys in the Tarim basin and in the adjoining regions east and north-eastwards, closely related to it geographically and historically, had
Assistance of left great gaps I particularly anxious to fill. I therefore
Survey of India. aa ps which was p Y
felt deeply grateful for the generous assistance which Colonel Sir Sidney Burrard, then Surveyor General, was once again ready to assure to me on the part of the Survey of India. In accordance with my request he deputed with me my old travel companion, Rai Bahàdur Lâl Singh, now Sub-Assistant Superintendent, whose previous local experience and oft-proved energy under conditions of hardship and risk were a specially valuable asset. He also sanctioned the services of a second surveyor, along with all necessary equipment and a grant to cover their travel expenses. In addition I was accompanied by a young military surveyor, Miân Afraz-gul Khan, of the Khyber Rifles. Primarily chosen by me to give practical aid in archa;ological field work he soon proved by his topographical sense and superior intelligence a very useful assistant for survey tasks.
For the journey to the Chinese border on the Pamirs which was started on July 31, 1913, from Srinagar, I was fortunately able to follow a new route,
Start through Dare leading partly over ground never visited by any European. It took us
and 'rank. leading p Y ground Y Y p
across Chilàs and the Indus to the independent Dard territories of Darèl