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0143 Serindia : vol.1
Serindia : vol.1 / Page 143 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000183
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oasis of Karghalik proper and the Beg-ship comprising Kok-yâr, Yül-arik, and Ushak-bâshi. The identification of Hsi-yeh with Karghalik is in striking agreement with the statement in the Chien Han shu that Hsi-yeh joined Pi-shan on the east and So-ch`ê on the north ; for Gûma and Yarkand are the neighbours of Karghalik on these sides exactly as here represented. If it is assumed that, at the time from which the notice of the Former Han Annals dates, Hsi-yeh or Karghalik had passed under the rule of a family originally holding the hill tract southward, the identification of Chu-chü-po with the Tzû-ho of Han times by the Tang annalists becomes intelligible,9 though their description of the territory shows clearly that the present Karghalik district is meant.

As regards the ' kingdom of ré jo' tit X which the Later Han record describes as a territory Location of

ad'oinin Tzû-ho and of identical customs, with a population of only a hundred households, it is jo, P`:~-

J   g   ~   P P   Y

safe to assume that it must be looked for among the several inhabited hill tracts to the west and

south-west of Kök-yar. On the upper Tiznaf River, about Gusos, and in the valleys of the five

streams which feed it, collectively known as 13esh-kant, there are fairly numerous settlements of

semi-nomadic hillmen which I shall presently have occasion to speak of. The exact location

of Pu-li and 1-nai, the other small territories which Chu-chu-po or Karghalik had absorbed in

Tang times, cannot be determined at present. But the mention made in the Cla`ien Han shu

of their position north of Tzû-ho, and of their dependence on So-ch`ê or Yarkand for agricultural

produce, suggests that they may represent the isolated hill settlements found in those little

accessible valleys like Asghan-sal, Öch-beldir, Tong, which are drained by the middle course of

the Zarafshân, or Yarkand, River, and the topography of which was first satisfactorily cleared up by

Captain Deasy's surveys."

Fully occupied as I was with desk-work during my stay at Kök-yâr I managed there also to Hillmen of

secure useful anthropometrical and other information about the hillmen of Pakhpu, on the Tiznaf Pakhpu.

headwaters, in whose racial type and origin I had long been interested. In Ancient Khotan I had,

on the basis of the scanty data then available, called attention to the important ethnic link which

that small and little-known hill-tribe presented between the Îranian Sarikolis and the actual

population of Khotan and the other oases along the southern edge of the Taklamakân.11 I had

also discussed there at length the manifold evidence, anthropometric, linguistic, and historical,

convergently pointing to the fact that the Galcha type of the Homo Alpinus, of which the

Sarikolis are now the easternmost representatives, had once extended much further to the east

and constituted the prevalent racial element in the ancient population of Khotan and the oases

linked with it in culture and history. In the course of the journey which my present volumes

describe, I used every opportunity to collect fresh anthropometric materials which would help

to throw light on this and kindred questions connected with the ethnic character and origin of the

population now settled in the Tarim Basin and particularly in its southern part. But the very

abundance of these new materials has made their systematic analysis by Mr. T. A. Joyce, who

once more offered his highly valued collaboration, a protracted task, and until his results from the

new measurements, taken on over six hundred individuals, are published, it would be premature

for me to resume the inquiry as a whole. I shall therefore restrict myself here and in similar cases

to a record of such general ethnographic observations as will account for the character of these

materials and may help their full use hereafter.12

° See Chavannes, Turcs occid., p. 123.

10 Sung Yün and probably also Fa-hsien passed through these hill tracts on their way from Karghalik to Sarikol ; see Ancient Kholan, i. pp. 28 sq., with note 23, for references to

the available topographical materials.

" Cf. Ancient Kholan, i. pp. 26 sq., 9r, 245 sq.

[Since the above was written Mr. Joyce's Notes on the physical anthropology of Chinese Turkestan and the Pamirs'